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In India, the classification of building based on occupancy is determined by the National Building Code of India (NBC). The NBC categorizes buildings into the following types based on occupancy:
All buildings, whether or not existing or hereafter erected shall be classified consistent with use or the character of occupancy in one in every of the subsequent groups.
GROUP – A
1) Residential Buildings
These shall embrace any building within which sleeping accommodation is provided for traditional residential purposes with or while not cooking or dining or each facilities, except any building classified beneath Group C.
Buildings and structures beneath Group A shall be additional divided as follows.
i) Subdivision A-1
Lodging and rooming homes
These shall embrace any building or cluster of buildings underneath the same management, during which separate sleeping accommodation on transient or permanent basis, with or while not feeding facilities however while not cookery facilities for people is provided.
This includes inns, clubs, motels and guest homes.
ii) Subdivision A-2
One- or two-family non-public dwellings
These shall embody any non-public dwelling, that is occupied by members of 1 or 2 families and features a total sleeping accommodation for less than twenty persons.
- If rooms in an exceedingly non-public dwelling are rented to outsiders, these shall be for accommodating less than 3 persons per space.
- If sleeping accommodation for more than twenty persons is provided in anyone residential building, it shall be classified as a building in Subdivision A-1 or Subdivision A-4 because the case could also be.
iii) Subdivision A-3
These shall embrace any building during which group sleeping accommodation is provided, with or while not eating facilities for persons who are not members of an equivalent family, in one area or a series of closely associated rooms underneath joint occupancy and single management.
For example – college and faculty dormitories, students, and alternative hostels and military barracks.
iv) Subdivision A-4
These shall include any building or structure in which living quarters are provided for three or more families, living independently of each other and with independent cooking facilities.
For example – apartment houses, mansions and Chawls.
v) Subdivision A-5
These shall embody any building or cluster of buildings underneath single management, in that sleeping accommodation is provided, with or while not eating facilities for hotels classified up to Four Star class.
vi) Subdivision A-6
These shall embody the hotels punctually approved by the involved authorities as 5 Star and on top of hotels.
GROUP – B
2) Educational Buildings
These shall embody any building used for school, college, different coaching establishments involving assembly for instruction, education or recreation for not less than twenty students.
Buildings and structures underneath Group B shall be additional divided as follows.
i) Subdivision B-1
Schools up to senior secondary level
This subdivision shall embody any building or a group of buildings under single management that is employed for college students not less than twenty in range.
ii) Subdivision B-2
All others/training institutions
This subdivision shall embrace any building or a group of buildings underneath single management that is employed for college kids not less than one hundred in range.
GROUP – C
3) Institutional Buildings
These shall embody any building or half therefrom, that is employed for functions, like medical or alternative treatment or care of persons plagued by physical or psychological state, illness or infirmity; care of infants, convalescents or aged persons and for penal or correctional detention during which the liberty of the inmates is restricted.
Institutional buildings ordinarily give sleeping accommodation for the occupants.
Buildings and structures below Group C shall be more divided as follows.
i) Subdivision C-1
Hospitals and sanatoria
This subdivision shall embrace any building or a group of buildings beneath single management, that is employed for housing persons littered with physical limitations due to health or age and people incapable of preservation.
As an example – hospitals, infirmaries, sanatoria and nursing homes.
ii) Subdivision C-2
This subdivision shall embody any building or a group of buildings beneath single management, that is employed for the custody and care of persons, like kids, convalescents and also the aged who are incapable of self- preservation.
As an example – homes for the aged and infirm, convalescent homes and orphanages.
iii) Subdivision C-3
Penal and mental institutions
This subdivision shall embrace any building or a bunch of buildings below single management, that is employed for housing persons below restraint, or who are detained for penal or corrective functions, during which the liberty of the inmates is restricted.
For example – jails, prisons, mental hospitals, mental sanatoria and reformatories.
GROUP – D
4) Assembly Buildings
These shall embody any building or a part of a building, wherever not but fifty persons congregate or gather for amusement, recreation, social, religious, patriotic, civil, travel and similar functions.
As an example – theatres, movie houses, assembly halls, auditoria, exhibition halls, museums, athletics rinks, gymnasiums, restaurants, places of worship, dance halls, club rooms, traveler stations and terminals of air, surface and marine public transportation services, and stadia.
Buildings beneath Group D shall be additional divided as follows.
i) Subdivision D-1
Buildings having a theatrical or show or the other stage and stuck seats for over a thousand persons
This subdivision shall embody any building primarily meant for theatrical or classical music performances and that incorporates a stage, proscenium curtain, mounted or transportable scenery or scenery loft, lights, mechanical appliances or different theatrical accessories and instrumentation.
For example – theatres, motion picture homes, auditoria, concert halls, and radio studios admitting an audience and that are provided with mounted seats for over 1000 persons.
ii) Subdivision D-2
Buildings having a theatrical or motion picture or the other stage and fixed seats up to one thousand persons
This subdivision shall embody any building primarily meant to be used as represented for Subdivision D-1, however with fixed seats up to one thousand persons.
iii) Subdivision D-3
Buildings while not a permanent stage having accommodation for three hundred or additional persons however no permanent seating arrangement
This subdivision shall embody any building, its lobbies, rooms and alternative areas connected to that, primarily meant for assembly of individuals, however that has no theatrical stage or permanent theatrical and/or cinematographic accessories and has accommodation for three hundred persons or additional.
For example – dance halls, night clubs, halls for incidental image shows, dramatic, theatrical or academic presentation, lectures or alternative similar functions having no theatrical stage except a raised platform and used while not permanent seating arrangement; art galleries, community halls, wedding halls, places of worship, museums, lecture halls, traveller terminals and heritage and archaeologic monuments, pool and table game parlours, bowling alleys, community halls, courtrooms, gymnasiums (without spectator seating), indoor swimming pools (without spectator seating), indoor court game courts (without spectator seating).
iv) Subdivision D-4
Buildings while not a permanent stage having accommodation for less than three hundred persons with no permanent seating arrangement
This subdivision shall embody any building primarily meant to be used as delineated in Subdivision D 3, however with accommodation for fewer than three hundred persons with no permanent seating arrangements.
v) Subdivision D-5
All alternative structures as well as temporary structures designed for assembly of individuals not coated by Subdivisions D-1 to D-4, at ground level
This subdivision shall embrace any building or structure, permanent or temporary meant for assembly of individuals not covered by Subdivisions D-1 to D-4.
For example – grandstands, stadia, park structures, reviewing stands and circus tents, arenas, external swimming pools, lawn tennis and similar variety of courts.
vi) Subdivision D-6
Buildings having mixed occupancies of assembly and mercantile (for example, shopping malls providing facilities such as shopping, cinema theatres, multiplexes and restaurants/food courts)
This subdivision shall embrace any building for assembly of individuals given multiple services/facilities like shopping, cinema theatres, multiplexes, restaurants/food court.
vii) Subdivision D-7
Underground and elevated mass rapid transit system
This subdivision shall include any building or structure like example, underground or elevated railways.
GROUP – E
5) Business Buildings
These shall embody any building or half therefrom that is employed for dealing of business for keeping of accounts and records and similar functions, skilled institutions, service facilities, etc.
City halls, town halls, courthouses and libraries shall be classified during this group up to now because the principal operate of those is dealing of public business and keeping of books and records.
Buildings beneath group E shall be any divided as follows.
i) Subdivision E-1
Offices, banks, professional establishments, like offices of architects, engineers, doctors, lawyers, post offices and police stations
ii) Subdivision E-2
Laboratories, outpatient clinics, research establishments, libraries and test houses Subdivision E-3 Electronic data processing centres, computer installations, information technology parks and call centres
iii) Subdivision E-3
iv) Subdivision E-4
Broadcasting stations, T.V. stations and air traffic control towers
GROUP – F
6) Mercantile Buildings
These shall embrace any building or part thence, that is employed as retailers, stores, market, for show and sale of merchandise, either wholesale or retail.
Mercantile buildings shall be more divided as follows.
i) Subdivision F-1
Shops, stores, departmental stores, markets (any with covered area up to 500 m2)
ii) Subdivision F-2
Shops, stores, departmental stores, markets (any with covered area more than 500 m2)
iii) Subdivision F-3
Underground shopping centres Storage and service facilities incidental to the sale of merchandise and located in the same building shall also be included under this group.
GROUP – G
7) Industrial Buildings
These shall embrace any building or a part of a building or structure, during which product or materials of all types and properties are fabricated, assembled, factory-made or processed.
For example – assembly plants, industrial laboratories, dry cleanup plants, power plants, generating units, pumping stations, application chambers, laundries, buildings or structures in gas plants, refineries, dairies and saw-mills, etc.
Buildings beneath Group G shall be any divided as follows.
i) Subdivision G-1
Buildings used for low hazard industries
This subdivision shall embrace any building within which the contents are of such comparative low combustibility and also the industrial processes or operations conducted in that area of such a nature that there’s hardly any chance for any self-propagating fireplace to occur and the solely ensuant danger to life and property could arise from panic, fumes or smoke, or fire from some external supply.
ii) Subdivision G-2
Buildings used for moderate hazard industries
This subdivision shall embrace any building within which the contents or industrial processes or operations conducted in that are vulnerable to give rise to a hearth which can burn with moderate quickness or lead to different venturesome situation and should offer off a substantial volume of smoke, however from that neither toxic fumes nor explosions are to be feared within the event of fire.
iii) Subdivision G-3
Buildings used for high hazard industries
This subdivision shall include any building in which the contents or industrial processes or operations conducted therein are liable to give rise to a fire which will burn with extreme rapidity or result in other hazardous situation or from which poisonous fumes or explosions are to be feared in the event of a fire.
GROUP – H
8) Storage Buildings
These shall embrace any building, or a part of a building used primarily for the storage or sheltering (including servicing, process or repairs related to storage) of products, ware or merchandise (except those who involve extremely flammable or explosive merchandise or materials), vehicles or animals.
For example – warehouses, cold storages, freight depots, transit sheds, storehouses, truck and marine terminals, garages, hangars, grain elevators, barns and stables.
Storage properties are characterized by the presence of comparatively tiny range of persons in proportion to the area.
Any new use that will increase the quantity of occupants to a figure comparable different categories of occupancy shall modification the classification of the building thereto of the new use, for instance, hangars used for assembly functions, warehouses used for workplace functions, garage buildings used for producing.
GROUP – I
9) Hazardous Buildings
These shall embody any building or half thence that is used for the storage, handling, manufacture or process of extremely flammable or explosive materials or merchandise that area unit vulnerable to burn with extreme quickness and/or which can manufacture toxic fumes or explosions for storage, handling, producing or process that involve extremely corrosive, noxious or vesicant alkalis, acids or alternative liquids or chemicals manufacturing flame, fumes and explosive, poisonous, infliction or corrosive gases; and for the storage, handling or process of any material manufacturing explosive mixtures of mud that end in the division of matter into fine particles subject to spontaneous ignition.
Examples of buildings during this category area unit those buildings that area unit used for,
- storage, underneath pressure of additional than 0.1 N/mm2 and in quantities exceeding 70 M3, of aliphatic compound, hydrogen, illuminating and natural gases, ammonia, chlorine, phosgene, pollutant, carbon dioxide, methyloxide and every one gases subject to explosion, fume or noxious hazard, refrigerant gases, etc;
- storage and handling of unsafe and extremely inflammable liquids, liquid gases like LPG, rocket propellants, etc;
- storage and handling of unsafe and extremely inflammable or explosive materials (other than liquids); and
manufacture of artificial flowers, artificial animal skin, ammunition, explosives and fireworks.
It is important to note that some buildings may have multiple occupancies and may require different types of construction, fire protection, and life safety systems.