LANDSCAPE GARDEN

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1) Hanging garden of Babylon (Mesopotamian civilization)

  • The garden is listed as seven wonders of the world as it existed in hot dry region
  • The garden was constructed by Nebuchadnezzar II for his queen Amytis
  • It existed in during 600-400 BC near Iraq
  • This was a structure in steps like Ziggurat on the bank of Euphrates River and irrigated by chain bucket system
  • It is called hanging garden as it looked projected when seen from top
  • Trees were planted by filling soil in sunken courts
  • Excellent example of Architecture and Hydrology Engineering
HANGING GARDEN OF BABYLON

2) Persian Landscape style

PERSIAN LANDSCAPE STYLE
  • The land of Mesopotamian civilization is called Persia
  • It lies between the rivers Tigris and Euphrates
  • The climate of the region was hot –dry
  • The garden has rectangular geometry with division into four sectors
  • Symmetrical about central axis
  • Persian garden symbolizes Eden (Paradise on earth) and its division in to four sectors depicting four sacred elements soil, water, wind and fire
  • Shape made easy to precisely locate point for planting of trees and execution of structural elements
  • Wide application of thick brick wall around the rectangular garden as enclosure
PERSIAN LANDSCAPE STYLE ONE
  • The Persian gardens have been enlisted in world heritage site due to their OUV
  • Maintenance of circulation of water in channels creates functional and aesthetic exigencies
  • Cannels carrying water in rectangular layout
  • Arrangement of trees and plants create lower temperature microclimate
  • There are pools at regular interval to distribute water by gravity
  • The pool serves as a focus and source of humidity
  • The purpose of gardens are relaxation and socialization
PERSIAN LANDSCAPE STYLE TWO
  • The water channels, buildings, vegetation and terrain integrate together to create unique man-made environment
  • Music accompanied constantly to enhance the effect of flow of water in channels
  • The landscape design during Mughal period in India has been inspired by Persian style garden

3) Mughal Landscape style (1526-1857 AD)

MUGHAL LANDSCAPE STYLE
  • Mughals style landscape were inspired by Persian Landscape
  • The Mughal garden introduced by Babur to Indian was used to decorate surrounding of the buildings
  • The use of running water in their palaces and pleasure resort was a special feature of the Mughal garden
  • A notable feature of the Mughal Architecture was the used of red sand stone
MUGHAL LANDSCAPE STYLE ONE
  • Significant use of rectilinear layouts are made within the walled enclosure
  • The famous char bagh gardens are at Taj Mahal, Shalimarbagh at Lahore
  • Garden in which river flow is a phrase used in the Koran more than 30 times to describe Paradise
MUGHAL LANDSCAPE STYLE TWO
  • The Muslim rulers of subsequent times tried to create man-made reflections of the Koranic paradise on earth
  • Cool pavilions, flowing springs, gushing fountain shady and fruity trees, mentioned in Koranic description of Paradise are essential feature of Mughal garden

Salient features of Mughal landscape gardens

SALIENT FEATURES OF MUGHAL LANDSCAPE GARDENS
  • Walls
  • Gates
  • Fountains
  • Tomb
  • Baradari or Pavilion
  • Trees, flowers and birds
  • Connecting path to cross the water channel

4) Spanish gardens

SPANISH GARDENS
  • The Paradise garden is interpreted with a central cross axis in four cardinal directions
  • Spanish gardens are symmetrical along central axis
  • Long water channels set in a walled courtyard where water, reflects and flows
  • The remaining four quadrants often had fruit trees and fragrarant plants
  • The characteristic sensory experiences are refreshing coolness, humidity, sounds, greenery and fragrance
SPANISH GARDENS ONE
  • This type of garden is compatible with the Spanish climate of sun and heat
  • Provision for shade are given with the use of arcade, pergolas, trellising and the garden pavilions
  • Ceramic elements and tiles are used in water feature, for structural, decorative and as paving
SPANISH GARDENS TWO
  • In Spanish garden style, Walled section create patio areas, courtyard house, and terraces offering views into landscape area
SPANISH GARDENS THREE
  • In the garden, tiered Spanish fountains and Moorish lantern are impressive landscape elements
SPANISH GARDENS FOUR
  • Planting along walkways in Spanish garden is arrange as smaller plants to trees away from edge of path
  • Plants in Spanish garden are of wide variety like, fruit trees, Flowering and fragrance plants
SPANISH GARDENS FIVE
  • Water is important constituent of Spanish garden with reflection of plants in the pool as in Islamic landscape
SPANISH GARDENS SIX
  • Sculpture and street furniture are important features

5) Japanese gardens (Zen Gardens)

JAPANESE GARDENS
  • Earlier Gardens in Japan were designed in order to bring spiritual sense to the garden
  • It was designed to give peaceful environment to people and can meditate

i) Characteristics features of Zen Gardens

  • No symmetry is followed
  • Planning is organic in shape
  • Harmony is key factor
  • Emphasis and dominance is strictly on the natural elements
  • The flow in organic shapes depicts rhythm
  • Hierarchy and variety can be seen in softscape

ii) Elements of Japanese garden

  • Water
  • Rock stone and sand
  • Garden bridges
  • Stone lantern and water basin
  • Garden fences and gates
  • Trees and flowers
  • Fish
Water
WATER USE IN JAPANESE GARDENS
  • It is the most important element of Japanese garden
  • Water is present in the form of pond or stream
  • Japanese have learnt to exploit the sound of water in all its various forms, powerful water fall water basin
  • The banks of the water body are bordered by rocks in order to preserve natural shapes, Man- made ponds are unsymmetrical
  • In case of dry rock garden it is depicted by sand in wave form
WATER USE IN JAPANESE GARDENS ONE
  • In Buddhist tradition (Followed by Japanese), Water and stone are opposite and complement each other
  • As per the tradition, stream and ponds and stones are put at a place where it is most likely to be, as it attracts fortune
Rocks, Stone and gravel
STONE AND GRAVEL USE IN JAPANESE GARDEN
  • Rock, Sand and Gravel are essential feature of the Japanese garden
  • Rocks act as coordinates for garden project
  • Variation in rock sizes offer greater contrast & interest resulting in more dynamic arrangement of rocks
  • Flat stepping stone provided to protect the grass from foot
Effect of ocean ripples through a swirling arrangement of stones and aggregate
EFFECT OF OCEAN RIPPLES THROUGH A SWIRLING ARRANGEMENT OF STONES AND AGGREGATE
  • Zen gardens have a unique feature of implementation of dry water bodies in the form of stone aggregate (depicting water) and rock depicting island
  • The ripple effect conveys a sense of calmness, tranquility and serenity.
Garden bridges
GARDEN BRIDGES
  • Bridges can be constructed with stones or wood
  • Bridges if made of wood can be painted red if it is used for temple
Stone lanterns
STONE LANTERNS
  • Stone lanterns are placed beside the water bodies to illuminate and enhance aesthetics
Fishes
  • Fishes of different colours in ponds are important feature of the Japanese garden

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