PROPORTION IN ARCHITECTURE

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  • Proportion refers to the relative size and scale of the various elements in a design.
  • The appreciation of proportions should start from the relative sizes that define an object – the sizes of the sides of the triangles that define the shape of the triangle: equilateral, isosceles, scalene etc.
PROPORTION IN ARCHITECTURE ONE
  • The issue is the relationship between objects, or parts, of a whole.

  • The concept of proportion is required to bring about a sense of order in the various constituents of a composition.
  • The difference between ratio and proportion is that while the former is a quantitative relationship, the latter concerns itself with the relationship of aspects.
  • In a rectangle of sides ‘a’ and ‘b’ the proportion is a:b, while ratio is 1:2, 1:3 etc.
  • A proportioning system is based on a basic ratio that is continued in certain multiples.
PROPORTION IN ARCHITECTURE TWO
  • Proportions are often appreciated in terms of the context or standard used to determine aesthetics – like beautiful eyes, beautiful face.
PROPORTION IN ARCHITECTURE THREE

  • These contexts are just specific sizes in relationship to each other.
  • These relationships could be based on culture and time but are generally accepted as reactions of a group and can also be individual – each child is the most ‘beautiful’ for a mother.
  • These illustrations show how changing proportions effect beauty as different people see faces.
PROPORTION IN ARCHITECTURE FOUR

  • Proportions are to be appreciated at all levels of visuals –linear, square or cubic. There could be a need to study proportions in lines, shapes and forms besides the cubic content of spatial orders like rooms or vessels.
  • It is a relationship of two aspects or objects.
  • It is one of the most important aspect of the creation of “beauty‟.

  • When an artist deliberately changes the scale of the objects in his/her work to show which object is the most important, it is referred to as Hierarchical Proportion. Look as these bas-relief sculpture. Notice the size of the king compared to the size of others.
  • (A bas-relief sculpture is a work that is sculpted in the front only. The images appear to be lifted from the surface, but they are not totally free and a true sculpture in the round).
PROPORTION IN ARCHITECTURE FIVE


  • Da Vinci’s Man is a example of the 1:1:6 ratio applied to the proportions of the human figure. Da Vinci illustrated various parts of the human body in the same proportion.
PROPORTION IN ARCHITECTURE SIX
  • Da Vinci’s Man provides the perfect example of his interest in proportion.
  • Da Vinci demonstrated through Vitruvius Man structure of the human body in proportional ratios equal to phi as follow.
  • The distance from the top of the floor divided by the distance from the navel to the floor.
  • From the shoulder to fingertips divided by the distance from elbow to fingertips.
  • From the hip to the floor divided by the knee to the floor.
  • Divisions of finger joints, toes and spinal cards.

PROPORTION IN ARCHITECTURE SEVEN
  • Note how the width and height have to be in a certain relationship for the body to look ‘proportionate’.

  • Proportion is the relationship between components of a single object or composition, such as the ratio between height and width or the relative size of a part in relation to the whole.
  • Components are in proportion to one another when they exhibit a visually balanced attitude; objects not in proportion do not appear to be compatible.
  • Man has studied proportions for centuries, and mathematical ratios have been developed which have been derived from proportions existing in nature.
  • These ratios, when applied to design, create a visually pleasing, balanced composition.
  • For example, the ideal rectangle has been said to have a ratio of 3:5 along its sides. Many other laws of proportion have been developed and are of use to the designer in creating visually balanced, aesthetically pleasing designs.
  • The best proportions are that appeal to the eye.
  • A proportioning system is based on a basic ratio that is continued in certain multiples.
  • The changing proportions of the depiction of beauty in human body changes with time place and culture.
  • In all visual compositions, for these to be beautiful, each component of the composition must be „beautifully‟ proportioned by itself and must be in proportion to other components of the composition.
  • While there are guidelines based on mathematical relationship like the golden ratio and Da-vinci man and Le Modulor, best proportions will come from a well cultivated eye.
PROPORTION IN ARCHITECTURE EIGHT

1) Golden ration

GOLDEN RATION
  • One proportion that is often cited as occurring frequently in design is the Golden mean or Golden ratio.
  • “Golden Rectangles” is a technique based on nesting inside each other a succession of rectangles based on the 1:1.618 proportions of the Golden Section.
GOLDEN RATION ONE
GOLDEN RATION TWO

Golden ratio

GOLDEN RATION THREE
  • Numerous artists and architects have proportioned their works to approximated the golden ration.
  • Directly associated with the golden section is a numerical system known as the divine proportion.
  • Mathematically, the proportion is known as phi, which equals 1.1.618. This number is derived from the Fibonacci Numerical sequence.

GOLDEN RATION FOUR
  • Example of the divine Proportion can be found in architecture, art music, and symbols. The dimensions of the Pyramids of Egypt. The Greek Parthenon and few classical revival and contemporary buildings employ the divine proportion.
GOLDEN RATION FIVE
  • The ration of each spirals diameter in nautilus shell is equal to phi 1 to 1.68. Sunflower seeds grow spiral in which the rotation of each diameter to the next is 1 to 1.68. Spiraled positioning on plant stalks follow the ration of the divine proportion.

2) Rule of thirds

  • A simplified version of the golden section is the ‘RULE OF THIRDS’.
  • Oddly, it is not a rule at all. Rather, it is a ‚Rule of Thumb‛ associated with capturing photographic image.
  • The golden section is believed to be the ideal proportional aesthetic.
  • The proportional divisions of a rectangular format are divided into a grid of nine equal units approximately in similar proportions to the golden section.
RULE OF THIRDS
  • These drawing illustrated the similarities between the image are a of photographic and the golden section rectangle.
  • In this drawing, the dimensions of 35mm film are formatted in its 3:2 ratio.
RULE OF THIRDS ONE

1.138a Henry Peach Robinson, Fading Away, 1858. Combination albumen print. George Eastman House, Rochester, New York

Fibonacci sequence

  • The Fibonacci sequence is the numerical series 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, 144 and is generated by the rule (f1 = f2 = 1, fn + fn-1 ). Fibonacci of Pisa introduced of the series in a problem involving the growth of a population of rabbits. Each number is the sum of the two preceding numbers.
FIBONACCI SEQUENCE
  • The Fibonacci proportion series generating numbers 1,1,2,3,5,8,13. The succession of numbers is achieved by adding the last two number in the sequence.
FIBONACCI SEQUENCE ONE


Greek parthenon

EXAMPLE OF PROPORTION ONE


EXAMPLE OF PROPORTION TWO
EXAMPLE OF PROPORTION THREE
EXAMPLE OF PROPORTION FOUR

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