CLIMATIC ZONES IN INDIA

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  1. Hot and dry
  2. Warm and humid
  3. Composite
  4. Cold
  5. Moderate

1) Hot and dry

  • The hot and dry zone lies mostly in the western part of India.
HOT AND DRY CLIMATE IN INDIA
  • For ex. Jaisalmer, Jodhpur, Sholapur, Ahmedabad and Rajasthan are some of the towns that experience this type of climate.

i) Characteristic of hot and dry climate

  • Winters are mainly dry.
  • Hot dry weather in summer & cold in winter.
  • Amount of rainfall & humidity is very less.
  • Sandy or rocky ground with very low vegetation cover.
  • Condition of the sky is clear most of the year.

ii) Jaisalmer – hot and dry climate

JAISALMER HOT AND DRY CLIMATE

iii) Hot and dry : Case of jaisalmer

  • Month : June

Latitude : 26ᵒ 54’ N
Longitude  : 70ᵒ 55’ E

  • Maximum possible sunshine : 13.01 hr.
  • Maximum Air temperature : 41 ᵒc
  • Avg. precipitation : 6.8MM (Low, generally less than 500mm per year)
  • Relative humidity : 31% (very low 25-40%)
  • Wind : Dust laden local winds (often developing into sandstorms)
  • Sky condition : cloudless skies with higher solar radiation. Occasional darkening of the sky due to sandstorms.
  • Solar radiation : Intense(800-900 W/m2)
  • Landscape and vegetation : Relatively flat, sand or rocky ground, low water table, scarce vegetation .

2) Warm & humid climate

  • Warm and humid zone lies in the southern and eastern part of the India.
WARM AND HUMID CLIMATE
  • For ex. Goa, Mumbai, Vishakhapatnam, Chennai, Kolkata, Puri (Orissa), Tripura, Gulf of Kutch etc.
WARM AND HUMID CLIMATE ONE

i) Characteristics of warm & humid climate

  • There is slightly seasonal variation throughout the year.
  • There are long monsoon periods with heavy rain But the breezes, especially in coastal areas, can alleviate discomfort considerably.
  • Humidity remains high, about 75% most of the time.
  • Precipitation is high throughout the year.
  • Sky conditions are fairly cloudy throughout the year.
  • Solar radiation is partly reflected & partly scattered by the cloud blanket.
  • Wind velocities are typically low.

ii) Warm and humid : Case of guwahati

Month : June

Latitude : 27ᵒ 04’ N
Longitude : 93ᵒ 34’ E

  • Maximum possible sunshine : 13.5 hr.
  • Maximum Air temperature: 31.5 ᵒc
  • Avg. precipitation : 293MM (high ,1200mm per year)
  • Relative humidity : 89% (70-90%)
  • Wind : usually one or two prevailing directions with velocities ranging from extremely low to very high ( during rain storms)
  • sky condition : Generally overcast (cloud ranging between 40and 80% causing unpleasant glare.
  • Solar radiation : Intense radiation on clear days ,diffuse radiation (causing painful glare) due to cloud cover or vapour content of the air.
  • Landscape and vegetation : Generally low altitude and latitude .

3) Composite Climate of India

  • Composite zone lies mostly in the central part of the India .
COMPOSITE CLIMATE OF INDIA
  • For ex. New Delhi , Lucknow , Allahabad

i) Characteristic of composite climate

  • Composite or monsoon climates are neither constantly hot and dry, nor warm and humid.
  • Courtyard type buildings are very suitable.

ii) Composite climate : Case of new delhi.

Month : June

Latitude : 28ᵒ 35’ N
Longitude : 77ᵒ 12’ E

  • Maximum possible sunshine : 14.02 hr.
  • Maximum Air temperature : 38.5 ᵒc
  • Avg. precipitation : 6.5MM (500-1300 mm per year during monsoon, no rain in dry season )
  • Relative humidity : 56% ( in dry season 20to 55% , in wet season 55to 95%)
  • Wind : Hot & dusty during summer, strong winds in monsoon from southwest, dry and cold winds in winter from northwest.
  • Sky condition : Dull in the monsoon , clear during summer, dust & haze during the summer period.
  • Solar radiation : Intense in summer and winter with a low % of diffuse radiation.
  • Landscape and vegetation : extremely variables landscape with rapid seasonal changes in vegetation.

4) Cold climate

  • Cold climate zone lies mostly in the eastern and northern part of the India.
COLD CLIMATE
  • For ex. Himanchal Pradesh, Leh laddakh, Darjeeling , Arunanchal Pradesh, Sikkim etc.

i) Characteristics of cold climate

  • RH varies between 45 to 99%.
  • Precipitation is variable, but rarely less than 1000 mm.
  • Sky conditions are normally clear or partly cloudy to the extent of about 40%.
  • Winds are variable, predominantly north- east & south easterlies, but may be drastically deflected by local topography.
  • Vegetation is green although not very luxuriant during the wet season.
  • Heavy dew at night.

ii) Cold and sunny : Case of leh

Month : June 

Latitude : 34ᵒ 09’ N

Longitude : 77ᵒ 34’ E

  • Maximum possible sunshine : 14.26 hr.
  • Maximum Air temperature : 18.5 ᵒc
  • Avg. precipitation : 4.3MM (very low generally less than 200mm per year )
  • Relative humidity : 31% (10-50%)
  • Wind : occasionally intense
  • Sky condition : fairly clear throughout the year with cloud cover less than 50%
  • Solar radiation : intense with low percentage of diffuse radiation
  • Landscape and vegetation : mountainous region with little vegetation
COLD CLIMATE ONE

iii) Cold and cloudy : Case of shimla

  • Month : June 

Latitude : 31ᵒ 06’ N

Longitude : 77ᵒ 12’ E

  • Maximum possible sunshine : 14.01 hr.
  • Maximum Air temperature : 24.3 ᵒc
  • Avg. precipitation : 147.5 (annual total around 1000 mm)
  • Relative humidity : 53% ( various between 70-80%)
  • Wind : Generally intense during rainfall, mainly depend upon topography.
  • Sky condition : overcast for most part of the year, except during the brief summer period.
  • Solar radiation : low in winter with a high % of diffuse radiation
  • Landscape and vegetation : highland region with abundant vegetation in summer.

5) Moderate climate

  • Moderate climate zone lies in the southern part of the India .
MODERATE CLIMATE
  • For ex. Bangalore .

i) Characteristics of moderate climate

  • It has mild to warm summers & cool winters.
  • It is relatively comfortable climate, especially near the coast, where summers are cooler & winters warmer than further inland.
  • In the mountains of Great Diving Range, winters are cold & summers are pleasantly mild.
  • Few openings on external side other than door.
  • Pune & Bangalore are examples of cities that fall under this climatic zone

ii) Bangalore – Moderate Climate

BANGALORE MODERATE CLIMATE

iii) Moderate : Case of banglore

Month : June

Latitude : 12ᵒ 56’ N

Longitude : 77ᵒ 35’ E

  • Maximum possible sunshine : 12.5 hr.
  • Maximum Air temperature : 29ᵒc
  • Avg. precipitation : 65MM (fairly well distributed over the year, total annual rainfall exceeding 1000mm, dry winters)
  • Relative humidity : 56% (30-80%)
  • Wind : High during summer.
  • Sky condition : Mainly clear, occasionally overcast with dense low clouds in summer.
  • Solar radiation : More or less uniformly moderate all through the year
  • Landscape and vegetation : Generally hilly or high plateau region with fairly abundant vegetation

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