COMPONENTS OF HINDU TEMPLE

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  • Temple is also called as Devalay or Devastan, Mandira ( man + sthir )
  • House of workship
  • The temple is the focus for all aspects of everyday life in the community – religious, cultural, educational and social
  • The temple is a place where God may be approached and where divine knowledge can be discovered.
  • The temple is designed to dissolve the boundaries between man and the divine
COMPONENTS OF HINDU TEMPLE ONE
  • Hindu temples are composed of one repeating unit – the square.
  • For God’s own house, the form had to be perfect and this limited the choice of shapes to the circle – a form without beginning and end, and the square – perfect for its symmetry

1) Introduction

  • The temples are built on the principles of vastushastra, known as ” Shilpa Shasthra”.
  • Yogic posture
YOGIC POSTURE
  • By increasing the complexity in this system of proportion the most complex of forms could be achieved, but their basic unit remaining the square.
INTRODUCTION OF HINDU TEMPLE
  • By manipulation of this basic grid that the indian architect created the greatest temples
INTRODUCTION OF HINDU TEMPLE ONE

2) Major elements /component of temple

COMPONENTS OF HINDU TEMPLE TWO

i) Entrance

ENTRANCE OF TEMPLE
ENTRANCE OF TEMPLE ONE

ii) Mandapas/ Halls

Pillared outdoor assembly hall or pavilion used for public rituals, religious dancing and music, audience to sit.

MANDAPAS OR HALLS
MANDAPAS OR HALLS ONE

When a temple has more than one mandapa each one is allocated for a different function and give a name to reflect its use like.

  • Sabha Mandap – for meeting
  • Nritya Mandap – for dancing
  • Kalyana Mandapa – for marriage function
  • Asthana Mandapam – assembly hall
  • Maha Mandapam – big hall for conducting religious discourse

iii) Garbhagriha

  • It is the part of temple in which the idol ( murty ) of the god is installed
  • It is a place that encourages meditation
  • Circumambulation passage ( Pradakshina path ) is provided around it
GARBHAGRIHA
GARBHAGRIHA ONE
  • Only priests are allawed to enter
  • It is usually on the main horizontal axis of the temple which generally is an east-west axis
GARBHAGRIHA TWO
  • generally it is a windowless dark and thinly chamber, intentionally created to focus the devotee’s mind on the tangible form of murty ( God )

iv) Shikhar

  • Sikhara or Vimanam literally means ” mountain peak “
SHIKHAR OF THE TEMPLE
SHIKHAR OF THE TEMPLE ONE
  • It refer to the rising tower over the Garbh grih where the Murty ( God ) is situated
  • It is the most prominent and visible part of a Hindu temples
  • The gods have always been attracted to mountains and they have great mountains for the symbolism and appearance of the temple. There was an impulse to create soaring towers that looked like mountain ranges
  • It is also a symbolism of connecting the link between men & god.

3) Major elements /component of temple

COMPONENTS OF HINDU TEMPLE FOUR
COMPONENTS OF HINDU TEMPLE FIVE

4) Design & Construction

The main entry is from west

The scheme of the Kailash temple is basically divided into four main parts:

  1. The entrance gateway
  2. An intermediate Nandi shrine
  3. The body of the temple itself
  4. The covered passage surrounding the courtyard containing 5 shrines
PLAN OF KAILASH TEMPLE

PLAN OF KAILASH TEMPLE

i) The entrance gateway

The gateway of the temple is double storied and opens into inside courtyard

The deities at the left of the entrance are Shaivaite ( followers of Shiva ) while on the right hand side the deites are vaishnavaites ( followers of Vishnu )

ENTRANCE OF KAILASH TEMPLE

MAIN ENTRANCE OF KAILASH TEMPLE

ii) The Nandi Shrine

NANDI SHRINE OF KAILASH TEMPLE

NANDI SHRINE OF KAILASH TEMPLE

  • The statue of holy bull ( Nandi ) is placed inside it
  • The size of the shrine is 6m x 6m and it is detached from the main structure but connected with bridge
  • The upper story is connected with the bridge to the main enterace and to the mandap
  • It has balconied windows on all the for sides
  • On either sides of it there are two free standing pillars known as ‘ Dwaja-Stambhas’ are located
  • They are 15m high
PLAN OF KAILASH TEMPLE

PLAN OF KAILASH TEMPLE

CORNER OF KAILASH TEMPLE

CORNER OF KAILASH TEMPLE

iii) The Temple

It is a double storied ( each 7m high ) structure placed after the Nandi Shrine

The main temple body has two structures namely

  1. Mandap
  2. Sanctum
THE MAIN TEMPLE OF KAILASH

THE MAIN TEMPLE

a) Mandap

The mandap measures 21m x 19m and supported by 29.3m high 16 square pillars in a group of 4.

The main body of the temple stands on a high plinth which is beautifully carved with sculptures of elephants and lions

MANDAP OF KAILASH TEMPLE
CARVED SCULPTURE OF ELEPHANT IN THE PLINTH

CARVED SCULPTURE OF ELEPHANT IN THE PLINTH

b) Garbhgriha

  • The garbhagriha is dedicated to Siva
  • Ramayana and mahabharata scenes are beautifully depicted on the outer walls
  • It is a tall pyramidal structure similar as of a south indian Dravidian temple
GARBHAGRIHA OF KAILASH TEMPLE

GARBHGRIHA OF KAILASH TEMPLE

STORIES OF RAMAYAN IN CARVED ON THE WALL

STORIES OF RAMAYAN IN CARVED ON THE WALL


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