JAIN TEMPLE ARCHITECTURE

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  • Founder of Jainism is Mahavira, last Tirthankara/ Saints.
  • All Jain temple are dedicated to 24 Tirthankara.
  • In Jain temple, bricks are hardly used.
  • Carving out temples from rock faces was adopted Jain had the concept of mountains of immortality (to live forever).
  • So they built temple in hills.
JAIN TEMPLE ARCHITECTURE ONE
  • Jain temples are built with various architectural designs.
  • Jain temples in North India are completely different from the Jain temples in South India, which in turn are quite different from Jain temples in West India.

There are two type of Jain temples:

  1. Shikar-bandhi jain temple (one with the dome)
  2. Ghar jain temple (Home Temple without dome)

i) Shikar-bandhi jain temples

  • They have many marble pillars which are carved beautifully with Demi god posture.
  • There is always a main deity also known as mulnayak in each derasar.
  • The main part of Jain temple is called “Gambhara(Garbha Graha) in which there is the stone carved God idol.
  • A Jain temple which is 100 years old is called a TIRTHA.
  • The main deity of a Jain temple is known as a Mula Nayak.
  • Manastambha (column of honor) is a pillar that is often constructed in front of Jain temples.

1) Elements Of Jain Architecture

  • Jain temples have numerous pillars having a well designed structure, forming SQUARES.
  • The squares thus formed create CHAMBERS, used as small chapels and contains the image of a deity.
  • From these pillars, there are richly carved brackets that emerge at about two thirds of their height.
ELEMENTS OF JAIN ARCHITECTURE
ELEMENTS OF JAIN ARCHITECTURE ONE
  • The roofs have pointy domes and wherever there is a dome, the pillars are omitted to create an octagonal space within.
  • The only variation in architecture specific to Jain temples is the frequently seen four-faced or Chaumukh design.
  • In these four faced temples, the image of a Tirthankar faces back to back to face four cardinal directions.
  • Entry into these temples is also from four doors that face the cardinal directions.
ELEMENTS OF JAIN ARCHITECTURE TWO

3) Chaumukh design

  • The central shrines of these temples are opened to four directions, and in front of each side, there is a “mandapa” (hall) covered by a domical ceiling.
  • It is called “Chaumukh” or ” Chaturmukha” (four faced) image.
  • If a temple is dedicated to this chaturmukha image, its garbhagriha is also opened to all four directions, thus provides mandapa, which represent a place of both worship and teaching, in front of each side.
CHAUMUKH DESIGN

4) The Ideal Plan Of Jain Temple

  • All shrines have “Shikhara” (tower on the sanctum) and flag pole, mandapas are covered by domes or “Samvarana roofs.”
IDEAL PLAN OF JAIN TEMPLE

5) Ranakpur Chaturmukha Jain Temple

RANAKPUR CHATURMUKHA JAIN TEMPLE
  • This temple has four Mahadhar Prasads ( Principal Shrines ) in four directions with artistic entrances. 72 inches tall four white marble image of Bhagvan Adinath is installed here.
  • The upper floors also have identical images in four directions.
  • The orientation of the temple in four direction and installation of four idols have given it popular name to this temple as Chaturmukha Jain temple.
  • This temple has many artistic pillars each one with different design and with beautiful carving in it. These pillars are arranged in such a way that they never obstruct the view and from any corner devotees can have darshan.
  • There is a popular belief that there are about 1444 pillars in the temple. 

Plan of temple

PLAN OF TEMPLE RANAKPUR CHATURMUKHA JAIN TEMPLE
  • Central Main Shrine is called “Mula-prasada,” its interior is Garbagriha” (sanctum).
  • A –   Assembly hall in front of four portals of the main shrine. Each Ranga-mandapa connects with three storyed “Meghanada- mandapa” .
  • B –    High hall in front.  Having four “Mahadara-prasada” (two-faced-shrine) diagonally in four directions of the main shrine, the temple type is “Panchayatana” (five-shrined- type).
  • In addition to this, there are two “Bhadra- prasada” east and west sides, making the total composition much more intricate
  • A line of “Deva-kulika” (small shrine) along “Bhamati” (cloister) surround the whole complex.
  • All these shrines hold a statue of Tirthankara or Jina (four in Chaturmukha, two in Mahadara- prasada), there are more than 100 statues in total.
RANAKPUR CHATURMUKHA JAIN TEMPLE ONE

6) Dilwara temple, mount abu

  • Located about 2½ kilometres from Mount Abu, Rajasthan’s only hill station.
  • Built by Chalukya during 11th to 13th century A.D
  • One of the finest Jain temple
  • Known world over for its extraordinary architecture and marvelous use of marble stone carvings.
DILWARA TEMPLE, MOUNT ABU

Dilwara Temple complex has been devoted to 4 Jain Tirthankars:-

  • a) Vimal Vasahi, dedicated to first Jain Tirthankara, Adinath
  • b) Luna Vasahi, dedicated to 22nd Jain Tirthankara, Neminatha
  • c) Pittalhar, dedicated to first Jain Tirthankar, Rishabha
  • d) Parshvanath, dedicated to 23rd Jain Tirthankara, Parshva
PLAN OF THE DERWARA TEMPLES
PLAN OF THE DERWARA TEMPLES ONE
  1. = Garbha Griha  ( Sacred Place For Tirthankara )
  2. = Gudhamandapa ( Small Prayer Hall )
  3. = Navchoki ( Assembly Hall )
  4. = Ranga Mandapa ( Ceremonies Hall )
  5. = Enclosed Walls/ Chapels
  6. = Semi Covered Areas
PLAN OF THE DERWARA TEMPLES TWO

7) Other Famous Jain Temple

  • Nasiyan Temple Ajmer
  • Hatheesing Jain Temple, Ahmadabad
  • Digambar Jain Temple, Delhi
  • Vimal Vasahi Temple
  • Pittalhar Temple
  • Shri Parshwanath Temple

8) Hindu temple Vs Jain temple

Hindu temple

HINDU TEMPLE VS JAIN TEMPLE
  • The basic form of hindu temple is garbhagriha+ mandapa”.
  • The garbhagriha at Hindu Temple is the House Of Gods.
HINDU TEMPLE VS JAIN TEMPLE ONE
Jain temple
HINDU TEMPLE VS JAIN TEMPLE TWO
  • The basic form of jain temple is four faced Chaturmukh Design (GambharaGarbhagriha).
  • Jain temple means the “place where doctrine of Jina should be preached in all directions.”  and accordingly “Tirthankara” (Jina) should be locked teachings.
  • It is called securely as a human “Samavasarana,” and the residence.
HINDU TEMPLE VS JAIN TEMPLE THREE
HINDU TEMPLE VS JAIN TEMPLE FOUR

9) Overview

  • These temple-cities were not built on a specific plan; instead they were the results of sporadic construction.
  • Natural levels of the hill on which the city was being built accommodated various levels so that as one goes higher so does the architecture and grandeur increases.
  • Each temple, though, followed a set pattern, styles, designed on principles of architecture in use during the period.
  • Compared to the number of Hindu temples in India, Jain ones are few and spaced out.
  • Jain temples are said to be the richest temples in the world, surpassing even Mughal buildings in terms of grandeur and material wealth.

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