- Radburn is located within the Borough of Fair Lawn, Bergen County, New Jersey, 12 miles from New York City.
- Radburn, a planned community, was started in 1929 by the City Housing Corporation from the plans developed by Clarence Stein and Henry Wright.
- The concept of the “new town” grew out of the older planned communities in Europe and the work of Ebenezer Howard and Patrick Geddes.
- The intent was to build a community which made provisions for the complexities of modern life, while still providing the amenities of open space, community service and economic viability.
- The community was intended to be a self-sufficient entity, with residential, commercial and industrial areas each supplementing the needs of others.
- It is America’s first garden community, serving as a world wide example of the harmonious blending of private space and open area. Radburn provided a prototype for the new towns to meet the requirements for contemporary good living.
- The residential areas include every type of housing unit with a wide range of cost.
2) Radburn’s concept
Radburn, New jersey – Plan of model community
- SEPARATION of pedestrian and vehicular traffic.
- SUPER BLOCK –large block surrounded by main roads.
- Houses grouped around small CUL DE SAC each accessed from main road. Living, bedroom faced gardens & parks, service areas to ACCESS ROADS.
- Remaining land- PARK AREAS
- WALKWAYS – designed such that pedestrians can reach social places without crossing automobile street.
3) Radburn’s planning criterias
Elements of the Radburn Idea,
- Super Block
- Specialized Highway system
- Complete separation of vehicular and pedestrian traffic
- Park as backbone of the neighborhood
- Turned around houses
HENRY WRIGHT‟S “Six Planks for a Housing Platform”
- Plan simply, but comprehensively. Don‟t stop at the individual property line. Adjust paving, sidewalks, sewers and the line like to the particular needs of the property dealt with- not to a conventional pattern. Arrange buildings and grounds so as to give sunlight, air and a tolerable outlook to even the smallest and cheapest house.
- Provide ample sites in the right places for community use, i.e., playgrounds, school gardens, schools, theatres, churches, public buildings and stores.
- Put factories and other industrial buildings where they can be without wasteful transportation of goods or people.
- Cars must be parked and stored, deliveries made, waste collected (Vehicular Movement)- plan for such services with a minimum of danger, noise and confusion.
- Relationship between buildings. Develop collectively such service as will add to the comfort of the individual, at lower cost than is possible under individual operation.
- Arrange for the occupancy of houses on a fair basis of cost and service, including the cost of what needs to be done in organizing, building and maintaining the community.
5) Radburn’s planning
CLARANCE STEIN & HENRY WRIGHT
Factors that influences
- Rapid Industrialization after World War I
- Migration of Rural to Cities
- Dramatic growth of Cities
- Housing Shortage
- The need to provide housing and protect from motorized traffic.
NOTE; A partially built, planned settlement in northern New Jersey represents the influence of the English Garden City rational, scientific planning.
6) Radburn’s super block
- The basic layout of the community introduced the “super-block” concept, cul-de- sac (cluster) grouping, interior parklands, and separation of vehicular and pedestrian traffic to promote safety.
- Every home was planned with access to park walks.
- There are extensive recreation programs planned for the entire community.
- While the orientation is primarily toward children, there is also a full range of adult activities. Some of the programs are: Tot Lot, Radburn PreSchool, sports, aerobics, amateur dramatics, library, clubroom facilities.
A diagram showing the street network structure of Radburn and its nested hierarchy.