RAMP DESIGN

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  • A ramp is a sloping pathway leading from one level to another. Ramps of an appropriate design shall be provided at all changes in level other than those served by an accessible lift or accessible lifting mechanism accommodating the specific requirements of persons with disabilities. Ramps allow persons with reduced mobility to move from one level to another. However, many ambulant persons with disabilities negotiate steps more easily and safely. Hence it is preferable to provide accessibility by both steps and ramps.

1) Ramps shall meet the following general requirements

1) Wherever the rise of a ramp exceeds 300 mm, an additional flight of steps shall also be provided  as  described  in STAIR CASE ,  shall  be provided for ambulant persons. An isolated single step is not acceptable hence; a ramp is preferred to a single step.

2) Where there is a large change in elevation that requires  multiple  ramps  and  landing combination, other solutions such as lifts should be considered.

3) Ramps should not ideally connect straight to doors as wheelchair users need a levelled platform at the end of the ramp to manoeuvre and negotiate opening the door.

4) A  curved  ramp  is  not  a  preferred  design solution. Similarly, a cross fall may put a wheelchair user at risk and may adversely affect  steering,  particularly  on manually propelled chair.

5) Shiny, polished surface materials that cause glare shall not be used for ramps.

6) Single row of tactile warning blocks (TGSI) shall be placed as per shown in figure 

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS OF RAMP

at the beginning and end of each ramp. This shall be placed 300 mm before the beginning and end of each ramp run to indicate the level change to visually impaired persons.

i) Gradient

  • The gradient shall be constant between landings. The minimum specifications for ramp gradients addressing different  level  differences  are  given  in  Table  (see also Figure).
GENERAL REQUIREMENTS OF RAMP ONE
GENERAL REQUIREMENTS OF RAMP TWO

ii) Width

  • The minimum clear width of a ramp (exclusive of handrails)  shall  be 1200 mm  and  shall  increase correspondingly as the level difference addressed by the ramp increases as per Table.

iii) Surface

  • Ramps and landing surfaces shall be non-glary, smooth, level, even and slip resistant even when wet. Outdoor ramps and their surface shall be designed to prevent water from accumulating on the walking surfaces. The surface finish shall be hard and suitable for the volume of traffic that the ramp is likely to experience.
  • Internal ramps should, if possible, be avoided. Where required, internal ramps shall be designed in accordance with the following additional criteria:

a) No  series  of  ramps  should  rise  more than 2 000 mm in total. If this is the case, an alternative should be provided, for example a lift.

b) An internal ramp should have the lowest practical gradient. In order to avoid trips and falls  during  a  fire  evacuation,  a  gradient of 1:15 should be the maximum permissible gradient within a building.

c) The minimum illumination at the top and bottom  of  the  ramp  should  be 200  lux and 150 lux in between the bottom and top.

iv) Landings

  • An end landing shall be provided at the bottom and the top of a sloped path, a stepped path, or a ramp and also where the run changes direction.
  • The area of the end landing  may  be  a  part  of  the continuing  path (see Figgure). 
GENERAL REQUIREMENTS OF RAMP THREE
  • The length of an end landing and an intermediate landing shall be not less than 1 500 mm. Where the ramp run changes direction, the minimum landing dimensions shall be 1500 mm × 1500 mm.
  • The area of a landing shall be clear of any obstruction including the path of swing of a door or a gate. Landings shall also be provided at regular intervals of not more than 9 000 mm of every horizontal run. It shall conform to other provisions of this annex if served by a doorway. If the end landing follows or precedes a turn for a pathway or an entrance, the minimum dimension of the landing shall be minimum 1500 mm × 1500 mm.
  • The width of ramp and consequently the dimension of landing in the direction perpendicular to the direction of ramp shall also be governed by the provisions of Table.

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