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  • Activities commonly performed in the toilet include washing of hands, face, and hair, bathing, elimination, and grooming, and also such activities as hand laundering and infant care.
  • Often it is also used as a dressing room .
  • Major problems in bathroom design include planning for optimum convenience and privacy of all toilet functions for all members of the household, adequate provision for storage of supplies and equipment, and ease of cleaning.

1) General planning guides

i) Arrangement

  • Facilities should be conveniently arranged, with special attention given to clearances. The room arrangement should permit more than one family member to use its facilities at the same time.

ii) Illumination

  • Lighting should be adequate for all of the activities performed.
  • For grooming, direct sources of light are essential in order to illuminate the face from all angles.
  • High strip windows, clerestory windows, and skylights provide excellent over-all illumination in the daytime, while still affording privacy
  • Luminous ceilings are also effective, particularly in interior bathrooms.

iii) Ventilation

  • Good ventilation is essential in toilet, both to reduce humidity and to dispel odors.
  • If a window is relied upon as the sole means of ventilation, care should be taken in its selection and placement to minimize drafts and to permit easy access.
  • Exhaust fans in the wall or ceiling are often used to supplement natural ventilation.
  • In interior bathroom spaces, a mechanical exhaust is, of course, essential.

iv) Sound control

  • Lack of acoustical privacy is one of the most common complaints with regard to bathrooms.
  • Noise can be reduced by proper placement of the bathroom in relation to other spaces, by the use of closets and storage walls as sound barriers between it and adjacent spaces, as well as by the use of soundproof partitions and tightly fitted doors.
  • Acoustical treatment of the ceiling makes the room more comfortable to use and reduces somewhat the amount of sound transmitted through the walls.
  • Acoustical tiles for use in the bathroom should be moisture resistant and easily cleaned.

v) Auxiliary heat

  • A heat lamp or a radiant wall panel can be used to provide quick warmth in the toilet. 

vi) Materials

  • It is essential that all surface materials used in the bathroom have moisture-resistant finishes.

vii) Storage

  • Adequate storage should be provided for current and reserve supplies.
  • Articles in current use should be located near their place of first use.
  • A closet opening from the bathroom or toilet and hallway or laundry is convenient for such items as bathroom linen and cleaning supplies.
  • Medicine cabinets should be as large as possible since increasing numbers of toiletries and medicines are being used by American families.
  • Hamper space is desirable for soiled linen and clothes. Install a cabinet with a self-contained hamper, or, in two-story houses, install a chute from the second floor to the laundry.

viii) Increased countertop space

  • Larger lavatories and increased countertop surfaces provide excellent facilities for light laundry, hair washing, and bathing and dressing the baby.

ix) Children’s convenience

  • Children’s height should be considered in the placement of accessory equipment.
  • A dental lavatory can double as a child’s lavatory.
  • If a combination lavatory-dressing table is installed, a step-up retractable stool should be provided for children’s use .

x) Mirrors

  • An atmosphere of luxury and spaciousness is created by mirrors.
  • A full-length mirror is always desirable.
  • Also recommended is a medicine cabinet with a three-way combination of mirrored doors on either side and a mirror in the center.

xi) Safety features

  • Grab bars should be used vertically fc bathtub and shower and should be located for convenient use.
  • They should be of adequate size and securely fastened to sturdy backing or studs.
  • Use nonskid finishes for flooring.
  • Install a door lock that opens automatically from the inside, and from the outside in case of emergency.
  • Locate light switches out of reach of the bathtub or shower-preferably just outside the bathroom.
  • Electric or radiant heaters should be recessed or protected.
  • Provide a lock for medicine compartments.

xii) Drying facilities and accessories

  • Add extra racks for drying women’s hose and other light laundry.
  • Racks may be concealed in well-ventilated cabinets, which, if desired, may include a receptacle for a low-wattage light bulb to facilitate drying.
  • Sufficient robe hooks, bag hooks, and toothbrush holders should also be provided.

xiii) Accessibility

  • A bathroom / toilet should generally be accessible to each bedroom without requiring passage through another room.
  • A bathroom / toilet is desirable near principal indoor living, work, and play areas, and for guest use.

xiv) Basic dimensions

  • Space is required not only for the use of particular fixtures but also between fixtures for cleaning purposes and for assisting another person (such as a small child or elderly adult).
  • These last two factors are often completely overlooked.
  • For economy of space, required clearances for each fixture may sometime overlap.
  • Some recommendations for the space required around the three basic fixtures: lavatory, toilet, and bathtub and shower.
  • The basic clearances are shown in the figure.

xv) Miscellaneous activities

  • In planning the bathroom / toilet, the designer should remember that families with infants usually prefer to bathe them in the bathroom.
  • The lack of adequate space has, in the past, caused many families to use the kitchen, which obviously is less appropriate for this activity than the bath.
  • The minimum space needed to bathe and dress an infant is 1 ft 6.5 in. deep by 4 ft 11 in. wide by 3 ft high.
  • In addition, other important activities are often performed in the bathroom.
  • Most women, at least occasionally, launder small items in the bathroom, and provision for this should be made.
  • Many adults, and children, like to use the bathroom for dressing.
  • Since this requires a considerable amount of space, it should be provided only when requested.

xvi) Arrangement

  • The conventional three fixture bath
  • The larger, compartmented bath
  • The lavatory or “guest” bath and
  • The “utility” both.

Three-fixture both

  • The conventional three-fixture bath without separate compartments has traditionally been designed for the occupancy and use of one individual at a time.
  • This type of bath, with combination tub-shower, averages about 40 sq ft of floor space.

2) Toilet layout planning

Design and Construction of basic toilets, including fittings, finishes and services Points covered:

  1. Toilet
  2. Basic component of Toilet
  3. Planning Principles
  4. sizes
  5. Services Involved
  6. Methodology for planning

3) Components of Toilet / Bathroom

Basic components of Toilet or Bathroom:

  1. Lavotary unit ie W.C / Commode
  2. Shower
  3. Bathtub
  4. Wash basin
  5. Interior units : Shelf / Storage, Towel hangers ,Mirror
  6. Plumbing fixture
  7. Electrical equipment’s : Switches, light, Geezer/ Exhaust fan.

i) Lavotary unit ie W.C / Commode


ii) Bidets

  • A bidet is a plumbing fixture or type of sink intended for washing the genitalia, perineum, inner buttocks, and anus of the human body, and is typically installed in a bathroom. Lower-cost add-ons combining a toilet seat and “electronic bidet”

iii) Shower unit


iv) Bathtub


v) Wash basin


vi) Health Faucet


vii) Towel hangers

  • The average height of a towel bar should be 48 inches from the floor. This is also true for the hand towel ring. If you are hanging towel bars in a children’s bath, you may want to hang the bar lower (36 inches from the floor).

viii) Toilet paper holder

  • According to the NKBA,(National Kitchen & Bath Association)a wall-mounted toilet paper holder works best if installed 26 inches above the floor,

ix) Soap dispenser or Soap Dish

  • The standard height for a soap dish is between 44 inches and 54 inches. However, the dish should be located away from the shower spray to avoid water collecting in the dish. A soap dispenser can be installed at a height between 40-48 inches.

x) Soap stand

  • The standard height for a soap dish is between 44 inches and 54 inches. However, the dish should be located away from the shower spray to avoid water collecting in the dish. A soap dispenser can be installed at a height between 40-48 inches.

3) Toilets / bathroom planning principles

General Guidelines to Consider

  • Bathroom Planning Guideline: Door Entry
  • Recommended: The clear opening of a doorway should be at least 34 inches wide. This requires a minimum 2-foot-10-inch door. If the existing structure precludes changing the opening, then a minimum 2-foot door is allowable.
  • Bathroom Planning Guideline: Door Interference
  • Recommended: No entry or fixture door should interfere with another door or the safe use of the fixtures and cabinets.
  • Bathroom Planning Guideline: Clear Space
  • Recommended: Plan a clear floor space of at least 30 inches from the front edge of all fixtures (lavatory, toilet, bidet, tub, and shower) to any opposite bath fixture, wall, or obstacle.

Code Requirement:
A minimum space of 21 inches must be planned in front of lavatory, toilet, bidet, and tub.
A minimum space of 24 inches must be planned in front of a shower entry.

  • Bathroom Planning Guideline: Single Lavatory Placement
  • Recommended: The distance from the center line of the lavatory to a sidewall/tall obstacle should be at least 20 inches.

Code Requirement:
The minimum distance from the center line of the lavatory to a wall is 15 inches. The minimum distance between a wall and the edge of a freestanding or wall-hung lavatory is 4 inches.

  • Bathroom Planning Guideline: Double Lavatory Placement
  • Recommended: The distance between the center lines of two lavatories should be at least 36 inches.

Code Requirement:
The minimum distance between the center lines of two lavatories is 30 inches.
The minimum distance between the edges of two freestanding or wall-hung lavatories is 4 inches.

  • Bathroom Planning Guideline: Shower Size
  • Recommended: The interior shower size is at least 36×36 inches.

Code Requirement: The minimum interior shower size is 30×30 inches or 900 square inches, in which a disc 30 inches in diameter must fit.

  • Bathroom Planning Guideline: Toilet/Bidet Placement Recommended: The distance from the center line of a toilet and/or bidet to any bath fixture, wall, or other obstacle should be at least 18 inches.

Code Requirement: A minimum distance of 15 inches is required from the centerline of a toilet and/or bidet to any bath fixture, wall, or other obstacle.

  • Bathroom Planning Guideline: Toilet Compartment
  • Recommended: The size for a separate toilet compartment should be at least 36×66 inches with a swing-out or pocket door.

Code Requirement: The minimum size for a separate toilet compartment is 30×60 inches.

  • Bathroom Planning Guideline: Storage
  • Recommended: Provide adequate, accessible storage for toiletries, bath linens, and grooming and general bathroom supplies at point of use.
  • Bathroom Planning Guideline: Lighting
  • Recommended: In addition to general lighting, task lighting should be provided for each functional area in the bathroom (i.e. grooming, showering).

Code Requirement:
At least one wall-switch-controlled light must be provided. The switch must be placed at the room’s entrance.
All light fixtures installed within tub and shower spaces should be marked “suitable for damp/wet locations.”
Hanging fixtures cannot be located within a zone of 3 feet horizontally and 8 feet vertically from the top of the bathtub rim.

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9) Plumbing of Toilet / Bathroom


11) Electrical Equipment’s /services for Toilet / Bathroom

  • Geyser unit must be installed at correct height from the ground. A minimum height of 1.8 meters from ground is recommended for geyser installation.

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