TECHNICAL CHALLENGES OF TALL BUILDING

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There are many Technical challenges of tall buildings.

  1. Types of loads and force faced by tall buildings.
  2. Types of Structural System
  3. Damping System in tall buildings

1) Dead load

DEAD LOAD
  • Permanent loads which are carried to the structure throughout their lifespan

2) Thumb rule to calculate dead load of building

  • The dead loads are calculated from the member sizes and estimated material densities. Unit weight of building materials can be estimated in accordance with IS : 875 (Part 1).
THUMB RULE TO CALCULATE DEAD LOAD OF BUILDING
THUMB RULE TO CALCULATE DEAD LOAD OF BUILDING ONE

Column:

  • Width = .350m, Height = 10m, Breadth = .350m
  • Dead Load = Volume x Unit weight = .350 x .350 x 10 x 25 =  30.65 KN

3) Live load / imposed / sudden loads

LIVE LOAD OR IMPOSED OR SUDDEN LOADS
  • The live load includes the weight of furniture, people occupying the floor, etc.

4) Thumb rule to calculate live load of building

Types of floors

Minimum Live load KN/m2

Floors in houses, hospital wards, dormitories

2.0

Office floors other than entrance halls

2.5 & 4.0 
2.5 when separate storage facility provided, otherwise 4.0

Shops, educational buildings, assembly buildings, restaurants

 

office floors for storage, assembly floor space without seating, public rooms in hotels, dance halls, waiting halls

5

Stairs, landings, balconies and corridors for floors but not liable to overcrowding

3

Stairs, landings, balconies and corridors for floors liable to overcrowding

5

Flat slabs, sloped roofs 

0.75-1.5

5) Snow load

SNOW LOAD
  • Calculation or Determination of Snow loads on  a structure:
  • S= μS0

Where,

  • S = Design snow load, μ = Shape coefficient (1 uniform thickness roof & 0.8 or less for others roof), S0 = Ground snow load.
SNOW LOAD ONE

6) Wind load

WIND LOAD
WIND LOAD ONE
  • Where Pz Is in N/m2 at height Z and Vz is in m/sec.
  • Up to the height of 30m, the wind pressure is considered to act uniformly. Above 30m the wind pressure may increases.
WIND LOAD TWO

Where

  • k1 = Risk coefficient, k2 = Coefficient based on terrain, height and structure size, k3 = Topography factor

7) Earthquake Load

EARTHQUAKE LOAD
EARTHQUAKE LOAD ONE

8) Special loads

SPECIAL LOADS

Foundation Movement

Regardless to the type of foundation, there are two common reasons for foundation movement:

  1. Response to soil volume change (shrink, swell or settle)
  2. Response to loading (settlement of foundation due to load on soils)

Elastic Axial Shortening

  • CAUSES – Concrete, Steel

Vibration

VIBRATION

9) Structural system

  1. Braced frame structural system
  2. Rigid frame structural system
  3. Wall-frame system (dual system)
  4. Shear wall system
  5. Core and outrigger structural system
  6. In-filled frame structural system
  7. Flat plate and flat slab structural system
  8. Tube structural system
  9. Coupled wall system
  10. Hybrid structural system

i) Rigid Frame Structure

RIGID FRAME STRUCTURE

ii) Braced Frame Structure

BRACED FRAME STRUCTURE
BRACED FRAME STRUCTURE ONE

iii) Wall Frame Structure (Dual System)

WALL FRAME STRUCTURE

iv) Shear Wall System

SHEAR WALL SYSTEM
SHEAR WALL SYSTEM ONE
SHEAR WALL SYSTEM TWO

v) Core and Outrigger System

CORE AND OUTRIGGER SYSTEM
CORE AND OUTRIGGER SYSTEM ONE
CORE AND OUTRIGGER SYSTEM TWO
CORE AND OUTRIGGER SYSTEM THREE
CORE AND OUTRIGGER SYSTEM FOUR
CORE AND OUTRIGGER SYSTEM FIVE

vi) Tube structural system

  • Framed Tubes Structure System
  • Trussed Tube Structure System
  • Tube in Tube
  • Bundles Tube
  • Hybrid System

a) Frames Tube System

FRAMES TUBE SYSTEM

b) Trussed tube

TRUSSED TUBE
c) Tube in Tube System
TUBE IN TUBE SYSTEM

d) Bundled Tube System

BUNDLED TUBE SYSTEM
BUNDLED TUBE SYSTEM ONE
BUNDLED TUBE SYSTEM TWO

e) Hybrid System

HYBRID SYSTEM

vii) Coupled Wall System

COUPLED WALL SYSTEM

viii) Flat plate and flat slab structural system

FLAT PLATE AND FLAT SLAB STRUCTURAL SYSTEM
FLAT PLATE AND FLAT SLAB STRUCTURAL SYSTEM ONE

10) Damping in Tall Building

DAMPING IN TALL BUILDING
  • Damping is the phenomenon in physics whereby energy in the form of vibration is taken from the oscillating system.
DAMPING IN TALL BUILDING ONE

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