- Green building refers to both a structure and the application of processes that are environmentally responsible and resource-efficient throughout a building’s life-cycle: from planning to design, construction, operation, maintenance, renovation, and demolition.
1) Objective of green buildings
- Efficiently using energy, water, and other resources
- Protecting occupant health and improving employee productivity (see healthy building)
- It is designed using an integrated approach
- Reducing waste, pollution and environmental degradation
i) Impact of the built Environment
ii) The primary Rating systems in India
- GRIHA [Green Rating For Integrated Habitat Assessment]
- IGBC [Indian Green Building Council]
2) IGBC (Indian Green Building Council)
- The construction industry in India is one of the largest economic activities and is growing at an average rate of 9.5% as compared to the global average of 5%.
- As the construction sector is growing rapidly, preserving the environment.
- To enable the construction industry environmentally sensitive, CII-Sohrabji Godrej Green Business Centre has established the Indian Green Building Council (IGBC).
- The Green Building Movement in India has been governed by IGBC since 2001, by creating awareness amongst the stakeholders.
i) Categories of IGBC Green New Buildings rating system
- Sustainable Architecture and Design
- Site Selection and Planning
- Water Conservation
- Energy Efficiency
- Building Materials and Resources
- Indoor Environmental Quality
- Innovation and Development
ii) Various levels of rating awarded are…
iii) Threshold criteria for certification levels are…
4) Sustainable architecture and design
i) Integrated Design Approach = Points : 1
- Intent : Encourage integrated design approach to construct a high performance building, thereby reducing negative environmental impacts.
ii) Site Preservation = Points : 2
- Intent : Encourage retaining the site features to minimize site damage and associated negative environmental impacts.
- Site Contour : Retain site contour to an extent of at least 50% of the site, including building footprint.
- Water Bodies and Channels : Retain 100% of water bodies and channels existing on the site.
- Natural Rocks : Retain at least 50% of natural rocks, excluding building footprint.
- Existing Topography / Landscape : Retain at least 10% of the existing topography / landscape, without any disturbance whatsoever.
iii) Passive Architecture = Points : 2
- Intent : Adopt passive architectural design features to minimize negative environmental impacts.
- Exterior Openings : At least 80% of the exterior openings (fenestration) have a Projection Factor
- Skylights : At least 5% of roof area have skylights
- Day lighting : 50 % of the regularly occupied spaces with daylight luminance levels for a minimum of 110 Lux (and a maximum of 1,100 Lux) in a clear sky condition on 21st September at 12 noon, at working plane (through simulation or measurement approach)
- Passive Cooling / Heating Technologies : (Eg: wind tower, earth tunnel, geothermal technologies)
5) Site Selection and Planning
i) Soil Erosion Control
- Intent : Control soil erosion and sedimentation, thereby, reducing negative impacts to the site and surroundings.
ii) Basic Amenities = Points : 1
- Intent : Provide access to basic amenities, so as to reduce negative impacts caused from automobile use.
List of Basic Amenities
- ATM / Bank
- Clinic / Hospital
- Crèche / School
- Grocery store / Supermarket
- Laundry / Dry cleaners.
- Park / Garden
- Post office / Courier service
- Restaurant / Cafeteria
iii) Proximity to Public Transport = Points : 1
- Intent : Encourage use of public transport, so as to reduce negative impacts caused from automobile use.
iv) Heat Island Reduction, Non-roof = Points : 1-2
- Intent : Minimize heat island effect so as to reduce negative impact on micro-climate. Provide one or combination of the following, for at least 50% of exposed non-roof impervious areas within the project site:
- Shade from existing tree cover/ newly planted saplings within 5 to 8 years of planting
- Open grid pavers or grass pavers
- Hard cape materials (including pavers) with SRI of at least 29 (and not higher than 64)
iv) Basic Facilities for Construction Workforce = Points : 1
- Intent : Promote welfare of the construction workforce by providing safe and healthy work conditions.
6) Water Conservation
i) Rainwater Harvesting, Roof & Non-roof
- Intent : Enhance ground water table and reduce municipal water demand through effective rainwater management.
ii) Landscape Design
- Intent : Design landscape to ensure minimum water consumption.
iii) Waste Water Treatment and Reuse
- Intent : Treat waste water generated on-site, so as to avoid polluting the receiving streams by safe disposal. Use treated waste water, thereby reducing dependence on potable water.
7) Energy Efficiency
Case 1 : Energy Metering : (1 point)
Demonstrate sub-metering for at least five of the following energy use applications, as applicable:
- Interior & Common area lighting
- Exterior area lighting
- Municipal water pumping
- Ground water pumping
- Treated waste water pumping
- Renewable energy generation
- Power backup systems (Generators sets, Gas turbines, etc.,)