Green building refers to the design, construction, and operation of buildings with the goal of reducing their environmental impact. It involves the use of environmentally responsible and resource-efficient building materials and practices, with the aim of creating a healthier and more sustainable indoor and outdoor environment for occupants.
A green building is one which uses lesser energy, water, natural resources & creates less waste and is healthier & safer for the people to live in.
Features of green building are…
- Energy saving to the extent of 30 – 40 %
- A green building has a great capacity to reduce the energy consumption.
- As few studies had also proved that installing energy saving appliances can remarkably reduce the energy and also helps in savings our natural resources.
1) Benefits of green building
i) Enhanced indoor air quality
- Constructing green building emphases more on the designing of ventilation system so that the people get the filtered, clean air and proper lighting most of the time.
- Indoor lighting also helps in controlling the dampness which is one of the main cause of dust mites and bacteria and generation of deadly diseases.
- So good ventilation systems enhanced the air quality of the building and protect the people from the diseases.
ii) Higher productivity of occupants
- Green building consists of the non- toxic material, proper ventilation which helps in reducing the toxic gases, bacteria and also balanced the temperature of indoor and thus make safer and healthier for the people.
iii) Use of non-toxic material
- Green buildings are built from renewable, non-toxic, reusable and recyclable materials. For manufacturing building low emission material are used like nowadays low volatile organic compounds paints are used by the constructor.
- VOC Paints are dangerous for the environment it quickly enter into air and create a ozone and cause air pollution. So by using non-toxic material also enhanced the life occupancy.
- Increased water saving upto 20% – 30% and efficient use of water recycling.
- Water saving is another important factor in sustainable building.
- Water can be wasted by leaking (toilet leaking can waste up to 90 gallons per day), pool showers, while doing construction work and from other activities.
- Recycling rainwater and using it for toilet flushing, gardening, washing and other way can save waste-water.
iv) Less Costly
- Green building is considered to be expensive than the conventional building.
- But this theory is not true as per the Californian Sustainable Building Task Force carried out a study in 2003, according to this study even 20% of investment into green building will elaborate 10 times more saving.
- So there is no significant difference in prices.
2) Examples of green building practices include
- Energy-efficient design, using techniques such as insulation, shading, and ventilation to reduce the need for heating and cooling
- The use of renewable energy sources such as solar panels
- Water conservation through efficient fixtures and rainwater harvesting
- The selection of sustainable building materials, such as bamboo and recycled materials
- The reduction of waste through recycling programs and the use of reusable or compostable materials
Green building has numerous benefits, including lower energy and water bills, improved indoor air quality, reduced carbon emissions, and a healthier and more sustainable environment for building occupants. Additionally, it can increase the overall value and marketability of a building.
3) Rating System in India
The three main rating systems for green buildings in India are:
- Other rating scheme:
i) Indian Green Building Council (IGBC)
- Indian Green Building Council (IGBC) has licensed the LEED Green Building Standard from the US Green Building Council and is responsible for providing the LEED Certificate in India.
- Giving a brief of IGBC. IGBC is formed by Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) in 2001 and is deliberately doing effort to promote ecofriendly concept in the Indian industry.
- IGBC is the non- profit research institution having its offices in CII- Sohrabji Godrej Green Business Centre, which is itself a LEED certified Green building and was awarded with the prestigious Platinum rated green building rating in India.
- Since then the Green Building movement in India has boost up and get the recognition.
- IGBC promotes sustainability based on the principles of five performances in the following areas:
- Sustainable site development
- Water saving
- Energy efficiency
- Materials selection
- Indoor environmental quality
- IGBC has also launched different rating programs to suit variety of building types.
- IGBC Green Homes Version
- IGBC Green Factory Building
- IGBC Green SEZs
- IGBC Green Townships
- LEED 2011 for India – New Construction
- LEED 2011 for India
- Registration is the initial step in IGBC. Project team interested in IGBC certification must first register itself by submitting the necessary documents and other important information as required by IGBC.
- And once the project is registered the project team can start preparing for documentation to satisfy mandatory requirements.
- To get the IGBC rating, the project must satisfy all the requirements and the must score the minimum number of credit points.
- At preliminary stage the project team is expected to provide supporting documents after the preliminary submission, review is done by third party assessors and review comments would be provided within 30 working days.
- The next phase involves submission of clarifications to preliminary review queries and final submittal within 30 days and then the rating is awarded.
ii) Green Rating for Integrated Habitat Assessment (GRIHA)
- GRIHA is India‟s own rating system developed by TERI and Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, GOI.
- The rating process begins with the online submission of documents as per the prescribed criteria followed by onsite visit by a team of professionals from GRIHA Secretariat.
- GRIHA rating system consists of 34 criteria categorized in four different sections.
- Site selection and site planning
- Conservation and efficient utilization of resources
- Building operation and maintenance
iii) Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE)
- The Indian Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) developed its own rating system for the office buildings based on 1 to 5 star scale. More stars means that more energy efficiency.
- BEE has developed the Energy Performance Index (EPI). The unit of Kilo watt hours per square meter per year is considered for rating the building.
- BEE has launched the Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC).
- This code is set for energy efficiency standards for design and construction with any building of minimum conditioned area of 1000 Sq mts and a connected demand of power of 500 KW.
- The Reserve Bank of India‟s buildings in Delhi and Bhubaneswar, the CII Sohrabji Godrej Green Business Centre and many other buildings have received BEE 5 star ratings.
iv) EDGE (Excellence in Design for Greater Efficiencies) Program in India
- The IFC, a member of the World Bank Group, and the Confederation of Real Estate Developers Associations of India (CREDAI), a body of private real estate developers, have also promoting green buildings in the country through IFC‟s EDGE certification.
- EDGE focuses on energy and water efficiency in buildings.
- It allows the builders and home-owners to choose environment-friendly technical solutions while capturing costs and projected savings.
- And the result is saving of atleast 20% in energy, water and material according to the IFC Report. Serge Devieux, IFC‟s Regional Director for South Asia said that “We aim to help builders introduce cost-effective green features into their designs and work with financial institutions and the government, to support their widespread adoption.”
Overall, green building is a critical aspect of sustainable development and is becoming increasingly important as society seeks to mitigate the impacts of climate change and create more sustainable communities.