DEVELOPMENT OF HISTORIC ARCHITECTURE

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  • Architecture which followed a continuous evolutionary course is known as “HISTORIC ARCHITECTURE” Such as Egyptian architecture or architecture style. The style refers to the method of construction practiced in a country  at a period , depending on the availability of materials , the religious conditions , and their traditions.
  • By studying history of architecture, we not only study history of civilizations, but, since architecture is a coherent chain of events, styles, tendencies, beliefs and techniques, we also gain a direct understanding of how and why architecture is made today, and clues to how architecture can be tomorrow.

  1. Need
  2. Importance
  3. Joy

  • In the cultural evolution of mankind we come across mainly three stages such as ‘Stone’ , ‘Bronze’ and ‘ Iron Ages’ according to the use of materials and weapons of that times. The ages have different periods in different parts of the world.
  • The earliest forms of dwellings of ‘savage’ hunter were rock- caves later on he learnt to built huts of reeds and tents from bark, skin of animals . 
  • The means of  living for savage people  were hunting, fishing and collection of  food.

  • In the cultural evolution of mankind we come across mainly three stages such as ‘Stone’ , ‘Bronze’ and ‘ Iron Ages’ according to the use of materials and weapons of that times. The ages have different periods in different parts of the world.
  • The earliest forms of dwellings of ‘savage’ hunter were rock- caves later on he learnt to built huts of reeds and tents from bark, skin of animals . 
  • The means of  living for savage people  were hunting, fishing and collection of  food.
DEVELOPMENT OF HISTORIC ARCHITECTURE ONE
  • Once the problem  shelter and food had been successively solved, the next outstanding works taken were of sacred nature , the places of worship or tombs.
DEVELOPMENT OF HISTORIC ARCHITECTURE TWO
DEVELOPMENT OF HISTORIC ARCHITECTURE THREE
  • ‘Stone henge’ – The huge stones are arranged in two concentric circles, the outer one with 33m in diameter while the inner with 25m. The stone – henge is the corruption of stanhangest , i.e. stone horse and built for religious purpose. Some have ‘deciphered’ stone- henge as an ancient calenderic device to keep track of solar and lunar cycles.
DEVELOPMENT OF HISTORIC ARCHITECTURE FOUR

1) Development of historic architecture

(3000 B.C to the present day)

  • The development of historic architecture is a record of continuation of evolution, beginning with the Egyptian architecture which is characterized by massive walls and strong closely spaced columns carrying beams to support the flat roof. This style is known as “Trabeated style”.
  • The ancient Egyptians were quite obsessed with after life. The mystery of death was the governing idea of Egyptian culture. Hence dead bodies were mummified and huge pyramids were erected by the pharaohs to secure immortality.
DEVELOPMENT OF HISTORIC ARCHITECTURE FIVE
  • The Assyrians and Persians were warriors, huntsmen . They built towering structures known as  Ziggurats. Babylonians constructed brick corbelled arches, barrel vaults  and sometimes domes. The world famous Hanging Gardens and Tower of Babel are outstanding works of Babylonians.
DEVELOPMENT OF HISTORIC ARCHITECTURE SIX


  • The Greeks adopted the trabeated style. Their love for national games and festival gave to the construction of stadia and theatres. The three columns (Doric , Ionians and Corinthian ) are known as “Orders of Architecture”.
DEVELOPMENT OF HISTORIC ARCHITECTURE SEVEN


  • The Romans adopted ‘ arcuated’  style i.e. they used arches, vaults and domes for their construction . Roman added  Composite  and Tuscan orders to the three orders of Greek thus making five orders of  architecture.  There love for justice is also evident in the numerous “Basilicas” or “Courts of  Justice”.
DEVELOPMENT OF HISTORIC ARCHITECTURE EIGHT


  • In India, there was a great rise in Buddhist architecture (300B.C onward) where we come across stupas , stambas , viharas , followed by Jaina  Architecture  and finally Hindu architecture  which is confined to the construction of temples, with numerous mouldings , carvings , relief work  based on Indian mythology.
DEVELOPMENT OF HISTORIC ARCHITECTURE NINE


  • Hindus mainly adopted the trabeated style of architecture. The arch was deliberately omitted since ‘the arch never sleeps’ a simple but poetic excuse accepted by the Hindu builders to avoid the use of arch. Hence the style consisting of the reposeful horizontal layers of stones was the main structural form adopted by them throughout the construction of temple complexes.
DEVELOPMENT OF HISTORIC ARCHITECTURE TEN


  • In Muslim architecture ,(700 A.D. onward), we see mainly tombs ,mosques , madrasa , palaces etc. Pointed arches are commonly used in this style.
DEVELOPMENT OF HISTORIC ARCHITECTURE ELEVEN


  • On Western side, now there was spread of Christianity , which had its birth at Judaea. It spread from Rome to other countries. The Christians mainly constructed churches of Basilican type. Later on the capital was shifted to Byzantine from Rome where a new Byzantine style was evolved , where we come across the construction of domes. 
DEVELOPMENT OF HISTORIC ARCHITECTURE TWELVE


  • In Romanesque architecture cathedrals, churches , monasteries and castles were constructed. The religious enthusiasm rise to Gothic style.
  • Then in Gothic architecture pointed arches are used in construction of churches. The walls were no longer required to support the structure so they were replaced by huge windows filled with stained glass. 
DEVELOPMENT OF HISTORIC ARCHITECTURE THIRTEEN


  • Next came the Renaissance style, the great revival of old Roman architecture. Pointed arches were replaced by semicircular arches, vaults etc.
DEVELOPMENT OF HISTORIC ARCHITECTURE FOURTEEN


  • In the 19th century industrial revolution took place, population increased enormously. Architecture then did not proceed on its old tradition, religion which was confined to temples, mansions, palaces etc.
  • A new architecture so called modern architecture evolved in 19th century to meet the requirements of the common masses. So buildings of great varieties came into being , such as municipalities, libraries, clubs, shopping centers,  restaurants , hospitals , technical schools , colleges, markets, factories, bus terminals, airports, sky scrapers etc.
DEVELOPMENT OF HISTORIC ARCHITECTURE FIFTEEN
DEVELOPMENT OF HISTORIC ARCHITECTURE SIXTEEN
  • It made rapid progress due to the modern material like steel, concrete, glass, plastics etc. aided by modern techniques. This architecture of machine age is increasingly becoming more and more complex throughout the whole world.
DEVELOPMENT OF HISTORIC ARCHITECTURE SEVENTEEN

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