KOPPEN CLIMATE

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  • Koppen Climate Classification System is the most widely used system for classifying the world’s climates.
  • Its categories are based on the annual and monthly averages of temperature and precipitation.
  • The Koppen system recognizes six major climatic types; each type is designated by a capital letter.
  • Each category is further sub-divided into sub-categories based on temperature and precipitation.
  • There are only 24 sub-categories.
KOPPEN CLIMATE

1) Koppen classification of climate

  • Broadly divided into 3 categories
KOPPEN CLASSIFICATION OF CLIMATE

3) Koppen climate classification of temperature

  • Five primary categories of Koppen classification of temperature
  1. A- Tropical climate (Megatherme Temperature)
  2. B- Dry Arid climate (xerophyte )
  3. C- Meso thermal climate- “moderate”
  4. D- Micro thermal climate
  5. E- Polar climate (Hekistotherme)
  6. F- Mountain climate

4) Koppen classification of climate

KOPPEN CLASSIFICATION OF CLIMATE ONE

5) Koppen climate classification of Rain and Vegetation

  • f- rainfall throughout year (fully humid)
  • m- monsoon
  • w- winter dry
  • s- summer dry
  • W- desert
  • S- steppe
  • h- hot arid
  • k- cold arid
  • a- hot summer
  • b- warm summer
  • c- cool summer
  • d- extremely continental
CLIMATE CLASSIFICATION OF RAIN AND VEGETATION

6) A – Tropical climate (Megatherme Temperature)

Essentially, no freezes. winds which change direction according to the seasons

A - TROPICAL CLIMATE
  • Tropical Rainy: no dry season
  • Annual precip > 80 mm
  • No real season
  • Sticky, humid air, with little wind
  • High sun angle all year
  • Tropical Wet-and-Dry: short dry season
  • Savanna: alternating 3 month wet and dry periods .
  • Monsoon: 5 – 7 month wet and dry regime
  • Both have 40 – 80 mm precip/year and average temps above 17°c every month
  • Tropical Monsoon: long dry season
A - TROPICAL CLIMATE ONE
A - TROPICAL CLIMATE TWO

7) B – Dry Arid climate (xerophyte)

B - DRY ARID CLIMATE

Arid and Semi-arid climate

  • BW (Desert):
  • Abundant sunshine
  • Hot desert: Sahara
  • Cold desert: Gobi
  • BS (Steppe):
  • Dry short grass regions surrounding deserts
  • There are cold and hot steppes
  • Hot steppes are subtropical: South Texas
  • Cold steppes are at mid latitudes: Montana
B - DRY ARID CLIMATE ONE

8) C – Meso thermal – “moderate”

It has a moderate amount of heat, with winters not cold enough to sustain snow cover. Summers are warm within oceanic climate.

C - MESO THERMAL
  • Mediterranean: dry summer
  • Wet-and-dry: dry winter
  • Humid: no dry season
C - MESO THERMAL ONE
C - MESO THERMAL TWO

9) D – Micro thermal – “low”/ Continental

D - MICRO THERMAL

Extremely rare due to the smaller land masses in the middle latitudes. Essentially, where snow remains on the ground for part of the winter.

  • Wet-and-dry: dry winter
  • Brutal winters
  • Coniferous forests
  • Not much precip 10 – 20MM
  • Northern Hemisphere only
  • Most of Canada, Russia
  • Humid: no dry season
  • Cold winters and warm summers
  • Precip in every month :Northern U.S.
  • Humid Continental (cool summers):Southern canada
D - MICRO THERMAL ONE

10) E – Polar climate (Hekistotherme)

The warmest temperature of any month is below 10 °C. Polar climates are further divided into two types:

E - POLAR CLIMATE
  • Tundra climates
  • Tundra is treeless
  • Occasionally temperatures will rise above freezing
  • Icecap climates
  • Complex climates because of altitude
  • Can be a little of everything depending on the elevation
E - POLAR CLIMATE ONE
E - POLAR CLIMATE TWO

11) Koppen classification in India

KOPPEN CLASSIFICATION IN INDIA

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