MAKING OF GOOD FOR CONSTRUCTION DRAWING

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1) Working drawing

A comprehensive set of drawings used in a building construction project which will include not only architect’s drawings but structural and services engineer’s drawings etc. is known as architectural working drawing.

2) Good for construction or working drawings

  • A drawing helpful in construction of a building
  • End result of the design and drafting process
  • A technical drawing used as a guide for the construction team

i) Need

  • Communicate technical information
  • Guide the contractor and construction team
  • For good specification writing
  • Reference for supervision
  • Actual measurements of construction process

ii) Working drawings vs Presentation drawings

Working drawings

  • For construction
  • For contractor
  • Technical drawing
  • Construction information
  • Schedules and detailed drawings

Presentation drawings

  • For presentation
  • For customer and officials
  • Artistic drawing
  • Functional and aesthetical information
  • Overall basic information drawings

3) Architectural working drawing

  • Foundation plans
  • Floor plans
  • Sections
  • Elevations
  • Roof plan
  • Site plan
  • Reflected ceiling plan
  • Typical details
  • Schedules

Other drawings

  • Electrical services layout
  • Plumbing services layout
  • Other services if required

4) How to prepare good drawings

  • Accurately drawn
  • Properly dimensioned
  • Properly represented
  • Referring building codes
  • Properly titled
  • On appropriate scale
  • Neatly arranged and understandable
  • Full of necessary information

5) Preparation of working drawings

i) Title box

TITLE BOX FOR WORKING DRAWING
  • Consultant name
  • Other consultants
  • Kind of project
  • Name of owner
  • Address of site
  • Information about designer
  • Draftsmen
  • Person in charge
  • Drawing title
  • Drawing type
  • Paper size
  • Date
  • Scale

ii) Title page

TITLE PAGE FOR WORKING DRAWING

iii) Other sheets

OTHER SHEETS FOR WORKING DRAWING

iv) Other important components

  • Lettering
  • Symbols
  • Abbreviations
  • Scale
  • Lines and drafting
  • Dimensions
  • Notes
Lettering
LETTERING FOR WORKING DRAWING
  • Lettering can enhance a drawing by making it simple to interpret and easy to understand.
  • In hand lettering we must, adaptable to the allotted space and to the impact for our lettering.
  • A title should carry more weight than one small note that defines one small detail of construction.
  • Sheet titles that cover large varieties of drawings, need a different type of lettering, perhaps smaller in size but with bolder stroke.
  • There should be complementary relationship between drawing and lettering, so they properly reflect the information without one distracting from another.
LETTERING FOR WORKING DRAWING ONE
Symbols and abbreviations
SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS
  • Symbols and abbreviations used on drawings must be commonly known, defined in a legend attached to them or explained by note.
Scale
SCALE FOR WORKING DRAWING
  • Scaling in architectural work is vital. All drawings with few exceptions (isometric details) should be drawn to scale.
  • To show the more drawings on the sheet, smaller scale should be used.
  • For example, a large building plan which depicts a building is done on small scale, at the same time, details are shown at larger scale.
Lines and drafting
LINES AND DRAFTING
  • Lines are the most expressive aspects of working drawings. Every line drawn should have some significance.
  • If a line has little importance, it should be light, or if a line makes an important contribution to the drawing, it should be heavy and perhaps broad.
  • Monotone drafting has no place in the architectural working drawing.
  • Line variation and line contrast of lines, contribute directly to the success of drawings.

6) Floor plan

FLOOR PLAN FOR WORKING
  • Is looking down on space
  • Architecture plan shows doors walls, windows and partitions
  • Different types of plans are structure, electrical, plumbing etc.
  • All these shows how services are fitted in architectural floor plans
  • Plans are starting point for architect to explain working and functions of design.

i) Importance of Plan

  • To determine the architectural concept of the building by showing
  1. Different spaces, shapes and their relationships.
  2. Door and window places
  3. Types of finishing materials
  4. Entrances
  5. Services like staircase, toilets, lifts, etc.
  • To show construction system and helps in estimate quantities and write specifications.
  1. Bearing walls and skeleton
  2. Dimensions
  3. Wall thickness

ii) other requirements of Plan

Axis/grid lines
GRID LINE FOR WORKING
  • A continuous center line that represents the structural axis.
  • Each line got it named as alphabet or number
  • If you want to add sub axis then use a combination between both alphabet and number
Dimension lines
DIMENSION LINE FOR WORKING

Mainly in outer dimensions there are three lines

  1. First – for openings and any changes in wall, it is first after outer wall.
  2. Second – for the dimension between each 2 grid lines
  3. Third – the total dimension of building

iii) Studio Work

  • Floor plan with evolved structural systems and Structural Grids. Dimensioning of Ground floor complete with levels, material finishes. Door/window designations.

iv) Types of architectural plans in working drawing

  • Floor plan with all internal and external dimensions is Dimension Plan
ARCHITECTURAL PLANS IN WORKING DRAWING
  • Floor plan with all reference markings to the details is called Reference Plan
ARCHITECTURAL PLANS IN WORKING DRAWING ONE

v) Check the following

  • Proper site and building are placed according to byelaws.
  • Finalized the floor plans with proper
  1. Wall thickness (outer and partition walls)
  2. Proper column layouts.
  3. Accurately placed doors windows and ventilators. With defined sill and lintel levels.
  4. All the objects are in specific layers with proper line-weights.
  • Lifts are hatched.
  • Staircase have shown proper UP, breaking line, Landing levels & dotted steps.
  • Entrance steps and ramp are properly dimensioned.
  • Dimensions are given for all brick work.
  • Courtyard and other open to sky spaces are shown with dotted cross.
Check the following (services)
  • Defined number of steps tread risers landing widths in staircases, and at building entrance.
  • Ramp slopes and building entrances.
  • Defined the sunken areas where toilets, Kitchen and other services based thing is present.
Check the following (presentation)
  • Grid dimensions properly done.
  • Text= 2.5 – 3mm (on sheet)
  • Columns grey hatched.
  • Walls hatched light
  • Title to every room corridor and open space is given.
  • FCW marked and related with table for all finishes.
  • D/W marked properly in drawing and seal.
  • Key plan Marked, North marked.
  • Upper floor projections are mentioned.
  • Levels are marked in corridors on upper floors.
  • Up and down are shown in upper floors.
  • Windows have sun and rain protections.
  • No furniture in plans.
  • No text is overlapping the dimensions.

7) External wall Section

EXTERNAL WALL SECTION
  • Wall section illustrate exterior facade design detailing. They are extremely important illustration to ensure the final appearance of the design.
  • Wall section should be shown from footing to roof peak without cutting the detail.

i) Wall Systems

WALL SYSTEMS
  • Structurally:
  1. Load bearing and
  2. Non load bearing walls
  • Functionally:
  1. Exterior and
  2. Interior (partition) Walls
  • Based on Materials:
  1. Concrete
  2. Masonry
  3. Wood
  4. Steel
  5. etc.

ii) Wall Section

Wall section describes in detail what the foundation, walls, floor systems and roofs are made of. So, we should be aware of:

  1. Foundation type and material
  2. Wall material
  3. Interior and exterior finishes
  4. Various heights
  5. Structural system
  6. Roof pitch
  7. Roof finish, etc.
Foundation and floor
FOUNDATION AND FLOORING SECTION
Wall and upper floor
WALL AND UPPER FLOOR SECTION
Terrace
TERRACE SECTION

iii) Check the following

  • All dimensions and specification of components are given.
  • Plinth level ground level and upper floor levels are defined.
  • All necessary dimensions are provided.
  • Different materials are represented with proper hatches.
  • Details at foundation, sill, lintel and terrace are given at 1:5.

8) Foundation plan

FOUNDATION PLAN FOR WORKING
  • The lowest part of the building constructed partly or wholly below the surface of the ground.
  • Part of the substructure which is in direct contact with and transmit load to the ground
Primary function of foundation
  1. Support super structure
  2. Anchor the building to the surface below
  3. Transmit load to the ground
Types of foundation
TYPES OF FOUNDATION PLAN FOR WORKING
  • Strip foundation
  • Pad foundation
  • Raft foundation and
  • Pile foundation

i) Foundation plan

GRID FOR FOUNDATION PLAN
  • The foundation plan is a plan view drawing in section showing the location and size of footings, piers, columns, foundation walls, and supporting beam
  • Foundation plan is drawn at the same scale as the floor plan
The foundation plan includes:
  • Trench plan with dimensions
  • Structural grid
  • Footings for foundation walls and columns
  • Foundation walls and columns
  • Plinth Beams
  • Details of foundation and footing construction
  • Complete dimensions and notes

ii) There are mainly five stages to draw a foundation plan:

  • Trench layout
  • Foundation layout
  • Drawing the columns and beams
  • Dimensioning
  • lettering

iii) Check the following

  • Grid dimensions properly done. (end centre to centre &overall)
  • Text= 2.5 – 3 mm (on sheet)
  • Columns grey hatched.
  • Marked C1, C2 and PB1, PB2 (Plinth beams will be light and firm)
  • Trench shown with dimensions.
  • Two typical sectional details are given (footing and foundation).
  • Marking of footing properly done in drawing as well as in table.

9) Terrace/Roof plan

TERRACE PLAN FOR WORKING
  • Top view of building
  • Explains the over all configuration of the roof and the elements that penetrate or rest on the roofing membrane.
  • It is usually drawn at the same scale as the floor plan.

i) Roof plan shows

TERRACE PLAN FOR WORKING ONE
  • Over hangs
  • Canopies and
  • Roof surfaces
  • All dimensions to walls, column center lines or other permanent features
  • Mark levels at various points wherever required.
  • Roof stricture,
  • Roof finishes
TERRACE PLAN FOR WORKING TWO
  • Drainage of roof:
  • Direction of water movement (Slope)
  • Drains
  • Description and dimensions of:
  • Gutters (Khurrah) and down pipes
  • Parapet walls
  • Other structures if left for future expansion
  • Building line (edge) in hidden while roof overhang in solid line
TERRACE PLAN FOR WORKING THREE

ii) Check the following

  • Mumty is shown with all down steps.
  • Terrace level and last landing levels are mentioned.
  • Khurrah is marked with size and number of RWP with pipe dia.
  • Parapet marked.
  • Ridge lines are mentioned.
  • Slope mentioned.
  • Detailed terrace section is detailed out.

10) Staircase

STAIRCASE FOR WORKING
  • A Stair is a system of steps by which people pass from one level of building to another.
  • So, a stair is designed to cover a large vertical distance by dividing it into smaller vertical distances, called steps.

i) Components of staircase

STAIRCASE FOR WORKING ONE
Tread and Riser
  • In a flight all steps have same riser and same tread.
  • Tread riser relationship should be as 2R+T = 63cm
  • Handrail 90-100 cm

iii) Types of staircases

STAIRCASE FOR WORKING THREE
  • Straight
  • Dog leg
  • L Shape
  • Winder
  • Spiral
  • Curved

iv) Staircase detail

  • Number each step Starting from lowest.
  • Indicate all dimensions.
STAIRCASE FOR WORKING TWO
  • Indicate all specifications and elements like handrail on plan and section
  • Draw all floor plans and in a single-story draw both up and down plan.
STAIRCASE FOR WORKING FOUR
  • Section showing all details and levels.
  • Joining details like handrail, etc.
STAIRCASE FOR WORKING FIVE

11) Elevation and Section

i) Elevation

ELEVATION AND SECTION FOR WORKING
  • Elevations provide viewers a better understanding of the scope and complexity of a project than any other drawing type.
  • Elevation should illustrate exterior finishing materials, levels, dimensions, centerlines, and details
Elevation for working drawing
  • Elevations are scaled drawings drawn from all four sides.
  • To show finishing and materials
  • Drawn at same scale as plans
Show
ELEVATION AND SECTION FOR WORKING ONE
  • Wall length and height.
  • Visible foundation
  • Exterior feature.
  • Windows and doors
  • Exterior wall finish
Show
ELEVATION AND SECTION FOR WORKING TWO
  • Grid lines
  • Levels

ii) Section

  • Section drawings provide a cutaway view of a building from the side to reveal what lays beneath the surface of each building element the section cuts through.
  • In a drawing there are generally two building sections that show a complete section view of entire length and width of the building respectively.
  • The main purpose is to illustrate the information that cannot be easily derived from other drawings.
ELEVATION AND SECTION FOR WORKING THREE
  • Section should illustrate vertical information including levels, materials, dimensions, corresponding centerlines and details cross-referencing.
  • Show interior features
  • Complete vertical dimensions
  • Specifications
  • Grid lines

iii) Check the following (Elevation)

  • North South-East West elevations are mentioned.
  • Key plan must be related with elevations.
  • All surface ad sectional levels are marked.
  • No unnecessary lines will be there until there is any level change.

iv) Check the following (Section)

  • 2 sections are required from toilet and staircase.
  • All the detailing of external wall will come on external wall.
  • Plinth beams will be there below the walls.
  • Grids are marked.
  • Key plan must be there on seal (not the site plan but the G.F plan)
  • All levels marked.

12) Site plan

  • The site plan should show the location of the building in relation to the site boundaries.
  • All landscape elements, streets and pedestrian should be indicated and dimensioned.
  • Surrounding buildings, Streets should be marked.
  • Drain lines should be marked.
  • Trees should be marked both existing and proposed.
  • So, it shows landscaping, driveways, ground levels, mains water, and other information relevant to the work being carried out, with legends.

i) Check the following

  • Site dimensions and surrounding is marked.
  • North marked.
  • Roads are mentioned with widths.
  • Building outer profile id dark and hatched with levels name and area written.
  • Mumty Hatched.
  • Plumbing marked with slope directions and invert levels.

ii) Check the following (Section)

  • All the different zoning of site is given.
  • Levels are marked on important places like green areas, parking, pedestrian pathways and buildings.
  • Guard room is shown in single line.
  • Properly composed.
  • Are chart and statements are provided.

13) Toilet Details

Check the following

  • One section through the toilet for discussions. The scale of the above drawings shall be 1:25.
  • 1 plan and four sections are given.
  • Grid, wall hatch columns and shafts are there.
  • Tiles line very light are given on floors as well as wall sections.
  • Drop with symbol is mentioned.
  • Floor trap, fixtures, valves, mirrors, are marked.
  • Center to center and overall dimensions of fixture is given.

WC internal dimensions will be referred from the reference drawings.

14) Kitchen Details

Check the following

  • One Plan & section through the Kitchen for discussions. The scale of the above drawings shall be 1:25.
  • 1 plan and four sections are given.
  • Grid, wall hatch columns and shafts are there.
  • Tiles line very light are given on floors as well as wall sections.
  • Drop with symbol is mentioned.
  • Floor trap, fixtures, cabinets are marked.

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