WALLS IN ARCHITECTURE

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1) Function of wall

  • To provide protection from weather, animal
  • To divide the areas
  • Act as sound barriers
  • As fire walls to attenuate the spread of fire from one building unit to another
  • Separate  the interior spaces
  • To improve the building appearance
  • To provide privacy

2) Material for wall construction

  • Timber, brick, concrete block, reinforced concrete can be used for wall construction.
  • Good for wall construction due it’s durability, beauty and able to provide comfortable area
  • Cenegal is suitable to be used at hot and cold climate area
  • Meranti can be used for all types of construction in the building.
  • Reinforced concrete used for precast concrete panel

3) Wall classification

  • There are 2 types of wall that is:
  1. Load Bearing Wall – Able to carry the load from above (own weight & load from roof) and transfer it to the foundation.
  2. Non Load Bearing Wall – Only carry their own weight

i) Load bearing wall

LOAD BEARING WALL

It can be exterior wall or interior wall. It braces from the roof to the floor.

  • Pre-Cast Concrete Wall
  • Retaining Wall
  • Masonry Wall
  • Pre-Panelized Load Bearing Metal Stud Walls
  • Engineering Brick Wall (115mm, 225mm)
  • Stone Wall
  • As the height of the building increased, required thickness of wall and resulting stress on foundation will also increase and cause it to be uneconomical.
  • Removing a section of a load bearing wall to create a pass-through requires adding a new beam and columns to support the floor above. As shown in figure below.
LOAD BEARING WALL ONE
  • Pre-Panelized Load Bearing Metal Stud Walls
LOAD BEARING WALL TWO
  • Stone Wall (Load Bearing Wall)
LOAD BEARING WALL THREE
  • Precast Concrete Wall (Load Bearing Wall)
LOAD BEARING WALL FOUR
  • Retaining Wall (Load Bearing Wall)
LOAD BEARING WALL FIVE

ii) Non load bearing wall

NON LOAD BEARING WALL
  • known as interior wall (doesn’t carry other load than its own load)

Types of non-load bearing wall

  1. Hollow Concrete Block
  2. Façade Bricks
  3. Hollow Bricks
  4. Brick Wall (115mm, 225mm)
NON-LOAD BEARING WALL ONE

4) Brick’s bonding

  1. Stretcher Bond
  2. Header Bond
  3. English Bond
  4. Flemish Bond
  5. Garden-Wall Bond
  6. Raking Bond
  7. Dutch Bond
  8. Brick-On-Edge Bond
  9. English Cross Bond
  10. Facing Bond

5) Cavity wall

  • “A wall constructed in 2 leaves / skins with a space / cavity between them”
  • “A type of building wall construction consisting of an outer wall fastened to inner wall separated by an air space”
Function
  • To prevent the penetration of rain to the internal surface of the wall
CAVITY WALL

6) Shear wall

  • A framed wall designed to resist lateral wall
  • It is a vertical elements of the horizontal force resisting system
  • It is used to resist wind and earthquake loading on a building.
  • It is typically a wood frame stud walls covered with a structural sheathing material like plywood.
SHEAR WALL

7) Wall failure

  • Vertical bowing and horizontal bending or collapse of wall is usually caused by the wall not resisting vertical pressures from foundation or upper floors & roofs or horizontal pressures from strong winds and retained earth.
  • Usual cause for failure of wall are as follows:

–  Overloading the wall, deflection of beam above the wall will effect the wall below.

– Foundation failure

– Earthquake

– Timber pest damage weakened the timber wall

– Poor workmanship (improper brickwork)

WALL FAILURE
WALL FAILURE ONE
WALL FAILURE TWO

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