WHAT IS BUILDING SERVICES IN TALL BUILDING

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  • Imagine yourself in the most fabulous building in the world. Now take away the lighting, heating and ventilation, the lifts and escalators, acoustics, plumbing, power supply and energy management systems, the security and safety systems…and you are left with a cold, dark, uninhabitable shell.
  • Everything inside a building which makes it safe and comfortable to be in comes under the title of Building Services‘. A building must do what it was designed to do – not just provide shelter but also be an environment where people can live, work and achieve.

Building services are “what makes a Building come to life”. . . .

They include:

  • energy supply -gas ,electricity and renewable sources
  • heating and air conditioning
  • water, drainage and plumbing
  • natural and artificial lighting, and building facades
  • escalators and lifts
  • ventilation and refrigeration
  • communication lines, telephones and IT networks
  • security and alarm systems
  • fire detection and protection

1) Service

  • Simply state that service is defined as those part of a building that consists of  the service lift, fire stair, Toilet, M&E service riser duct .

2) Element of Service

  • Toilet
  • Fire Stair.
  • Service/Fire  Elevator
  • Riser Duct
ELEMENT OF SERVICE
ELEMENT OF SERVICE ONE

3) Plumbing

  • Plumbing is the system of pipes, drains, fittings, valves, and fixtures  installed for the distribution of potable water for drinking, heating and  washing, and waterborne waste removal. “Plumbing” also refers to the  skilled trade which installs and maintains it.
  • The plumbing industry is a basic and substantial part of every  developed economy. The word derives from the Latin plumbing for  lead, as the first effective pipes used in Roman era were lead pipes.
  • “Plumbing” often denotes the supply and waste system of an individual  building, distinguishing it from water supply and sewage systems that  serve a group of buildings.

4) Plumbing System

  • The major categories of plumbing systems or subsystems are:
  • potable cold and hot tap water supply
  • plumbing drainage venting
  • sewage systems and septic systems with or without hot water heat recycling and gray water recovery and treatment systems
  • Rainwater, surface, and subsurface water drainage[relevant? – discuss]
  • fuel gas piping
  • hydronic, i.e. heating and cooling systems utilizing water to transport thermal energy, as in district heating systems, like for example the New York City steam system.

5) Ducted Distribution of Services

  • Service duct require careful planning and should be considered at an early stage in the design of a building.
  • Accommodation of the plant and the layout of services are the two essential factors in design.
  • It is usual to need some 7 – 10% of the total floor area for plant spaces and ducts.
The purpose:
  • conceal the services and to facilitate inspection, repair and alterations.
  • Helps to reduce noise
  • Protects the services from damage

6) Importance of unified system of services distribution

  • Most services can be run in common ducts except flammable liquids and gases
  • The pattern of distribution of services is considered as a whole in relation to the building planning
  • 3 different categories of services run having different requirements for patterns of distribution:

Wells and flues

Pipes and ventilation trucking’s

Electrical cables

  • Stair and lift wells run vertically through buildings. They do not required linkage with services at each floor level but prevent an obstacle to horizontal distribution of other  services

7) Arrangement pattern & spatial effect of Service:

Riser duct

  • Duct layout should be near of toilet block for cost effective ducting
  • Duct shaft should be included maintenance door
RISER DUCT
  •  Vertical ducts: dimensions are often found varied due to lack of planning in the design  process
VERTICAL DUCTS
  • Underground ducts: would conflict with columns and foundations in construction
UNDERGROUND DUCTS

8) Arrangement pattern & spatial effect of Service

i) Toilet

TOILET
  • Toilet layout should be in service core
  • Toilet block should be near of riser duct
  • Block position is located in a place so that people can use it without access in lift lobby

ii) Stair & fire exit

Central Core

  • Easily escape for central  position & mechanical lighting
CENTRAL CORE

Split Core

  • More easily escape for split  position
SPLIT CORE

End Core

  • Easily escape for end  position
END CORE

Atrium Core

ATRIUM CORE

iii) Service & fire elevator

Central Core

SERVICE AND ELEVATOR

Split Core

SERVICE AND ELEVATOR ONE

End Core

SERVICE AND ELEVATOR TWO

9) Ventilation

VENTILATION

Ventilating is the process of replacing air in any space to provide high indoor air quality ( to control  temperature, replenish oxygen, or remove moisture, odors, smoke, heat, dust, airborne bacteria and  carbon dioxide). Ventilation is used to remove unpleasant smells and excessive moisture, introduce  outside air, to keep interior building air circulating, and to prevent stagnation of the interior air.

10) Types of ventilation

  • Natural ventilation: occurs when the air in a space is  changed with outdoor air without the use of mechanical  systems, such as a fan. Most often natural ventilation is  assured through operable windows. Open windows or  vents are not a good choice for ventilating a basement or  other below ground structure. Allowing outside air into a  cooler below ground space will cause problems with  humidity and condensation.
  • Mechanical ventilation: an air handling unit or  direct injection to a space by a fan. A local exhaust fan  can enhance infiltration or natural ventilation, thus  increasing the ventilation air flow rate.
  • Mixed Mode Ventilation: both mechanical and natural ventilation processes.
TYPES OF VENTILATION

11) Core and ventilation

CORE AND VENTILATION

12) Arrangement pattern & ventilation

ARRANGEMENT PATTERN AND VENTILATION

13) Core ventilation and effect

CORE VENTILATION AND EFFECT
CORE VENTILATION AND EFFECT ONE

14) Staircase ventilation

STAIRCASE VENTILATION
STAIRCASE VENTILATION ONE

15) Fire fighting lobby ventilation

FIRE FIGHTING LOBBY VENTILATION

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