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Sanitary appliances are fixtures used in toilets and bathrooms for personal hygiene and sanitation. There are several types of sanitary appliances that are commonly used in buildings, and each type serves a specific purpose.

  • Sanitary appliances are fittings used for collection and discharge of soil or waste matter.
  • These appliances may be grouped under soil appliances and wastewater appliances. Soil appliances are used for collection and discharge of excreta matter including water closet, urinal etc.

1) Soil Appliances

i) Water closet


It shall essentially consist of a closet consisting of a bowl to receive excretory matter, trap and a flushing apparatus. It is recommended to provide ablution tap adjacent to the water closet, preferably on right hand side wall. The various types/style of water closets may be:

  1. Squatting Indian type water closet,
  2. Washdown type water closet,
  3. Siphonic washdown type water closet, and
  4. Universal or Anglo-Indian water closet.

ii) Bidet

  • Bidet is an ablution appliance for cleansing excretory organs with water for personnel hygiene.
  • It may be pedestal type or wall hung with a shallow bowl.
  • Hot and cold water supplied through a mixer is discharged from a spray installed over the rim of the appliance.
  • The bidet outlet should essentially connect to soil pipe in a system.

iii) Urinal


It is a soil appliance for urination and is connected to soil pipe after a suitable trap. Urinal should have adequate provision of flushing apparatus. The various types/style of urinal may be.

  1. Bowl type urinal: flat back or angle back.
  2. Slab (single) type urinal.
  3. Stall (single) type urinal.
  4. Squatting plate type urinal.
  5. Syphon jet urinal with integral trap.
  6. Water less (non-water) urinal.

iv) Slop sink

  • Slop sink is a large sink, generally of square shape.
  • The appliance is used in hospitals and is installed in the dirty utility room, sluice room and similar locations for disposal of excreta and other foul waste and for washing bed pans and urine bottles/pans.
  • It is provided with a flushing mechanism.
  • It is also provided in Janitor.s  closet where  it  is  used  for  cleaning  the housekeeping mops, etc.

v) Bed pan sink

  • Bed pan sink, also known as bedpan washer and disinfector, is a part of medical equipment inventory which is used to clean manually or automatically, the hospital bedpans, urine bottles and other containers used for collecting body fluids.
  • It is provided in dirty utility room, sluice room, similar locations for disposal of excreta and other foul waste and for washing bed pans, urine bottles/pans. It is a soil appliance and is connected to soil pipe after a suitable trap.
  • In manual models, it has a flushing arrangement. Provision for installing a bedpan washer and disinfector should be made in all intensive care units in hospitals.

2) Waste Appliances

i) Wash basin

  • It is of one-piece construction having a combined overflow and preferably should have soap holding recess or recesses that should properly drain into the bowl. 
  • Each basin shall have circular waste hole through which the liquid content of the basin shall drain.

ii) Wash-trough

  • It is a linear trough for simultaneous use by number of persons.

iii) Sink

  • It is used in kitchen and laboratory for the purpose of cleaning utensils/ apparatus and also serve the purpose of providing water for general usage.
  • The sink may be made with or without overflow arrangement.
  • The sink shall be of one-piece construction including combined over flow, where provided.
  • The sink shall have a circular waste hole into which the interiors of the sink shall drain.

iv) Bath tub

  • Bath tub may be of enameled steel, cast iron, gel-coated, glass fibre reinforced plastic or may be cast in-situ.
  • It shall be stable, comfortable, easy to get in and out, water tight, with anti-skid base, and easy to install and maintain.
  • The bath tub shall be fitted with overflow and waste pipe of nominal diameter of not less than 32 mm and 40 mm, respectively.

v) Drinking fountain

  • It is a bowl fitted with a push button tap and a water bubbler or a tap with a swan neck outlet fitting.
  • It has a waste fitting, a trap and is connected to the waste pipe.

In conclusion, sanitary appliances are essential components of toilets and bathrooms, and there are several types of sanitary appliances that serve different purposes. The choice of sanitary appliances depends on several factors, including the type of building, the needs and preferences of users, and the availability of resources.

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